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1. Electrical Measuring Instruments | Types Accuracy Precision Resolution Speed
2. Errors in Measurement | Classification of Errors
3. Permanent Magnet Moving Coil Instrument or PMMC Instrument
4. Moving Iron Instrument
5. Electrostatic Type Instruments Construction Principle Torque Equation
6. Rectifier Type Instrument | Construction Principle of Operation
7. Induction Type Meters
8. Thermocouple Type Instruments Construction Principle of Operation
9. Measurement of Resistance
10. Megger | Working Principle Types History Uses of Megger


1. Ammeter Working Principle and Types of Ammeter
2. Working Principle of Voltmeter and Types of Voltmeter
3. Ohmmeter Working Principle of Ohmmeter
4. Analog Multimeter
5. Varmeter | Single Phase and Polyphase Varmeter
6. Weston Type Frequency Meter
7. Electronic DC Voltmeter
8. Capacitance Meter
9. Vector Impedance Meter
10. Flow Measurement
11. Flow Meters Types of Flow Meters
12. Power Factor Meters | Electrodynamometer Type Power Factor Meter
13. Air Meter
14. Water Meter
15. Phase Sequence Indicator
16. Protection of Meters

Digital Meters

1. Digital Multimeter
2. How to Use a Digital Multimeter?
3. Digital Voltmeters Working Principle of Digital Voltmeter
4. Digital Frequency Meter


1. Measurement of Three Phase Power
2. Electrodynamometer Type Wattmeter
3. What is Low Power Factor Wattmeter?


1. What is Potentiometer?
2. Potentiometer Working Principle of Potentiometer
3. Digital Potentiometers
4. AC Potentiometer
5. Applications of Potentiometer or Uses of Potentiometer
6. Questions on Potentiometer


1. Transducer | Types of Transducer
2. Temperature Transducers
3. Piezoelectric Transducer
4. Inductive Transducers
5. Oscillator Transducer
6. Strain Gauge
7. Linear Variable Differential Transformer LVDT
8. Polarization Index Test or PI Test
9. Tan Delta Test | Loss Angle Test | Dissipation Factor Test


1. Cathode Ray Oscilloscope | CRO
2. Lissajous Patterns of CRO or Cathode Ray Oscilloscope
3. Digital Storage Oscilloscope
4. Double Beam Oscilloscope
5. Sampling Oscilloscope
6. Measurement of Voltage Current and Frequency by Oscilloscope
7. Frequency Limitation of an Oscilloscope


1. What is an Oscillator?
2. Hartley Oscillator
3. Colpitts Oscillator
4. Clapp Oscillator
5. RC Phase Shift Oscillator
6. Wien Bridge Oscillator
7. Gunn Oscillator
8. Crystal Oscillator
9. Tuned Collector Oscillator
10. Voltage Controlled Oscillator | VCO
11. Signal Generator


1. Wheatstone Bridge Circuit Theory and Principle
2. Kelvin Bridge Circuit | Kelvin Double Bridge
3. Maxwell Bridge Inductance Capacitance Bridge
4. Anderson?s Bridge | Advantages Disadvantages of Anderson?s Bridge
5. Hay?s Bridge Circuit Theory Phasor Diagram Advantages Applications
6. Owens Bridge Circuit and Advantages
7. Schering Bridge Measurement of Capacitance using Schering Bridge
8. De Sauty Bridge
9. Heaviside Bridge Circuit
10. Blavier Test | Murray Loop Test | Varley Loop Test | Fisher Loop Test

Biomedical Instrumentation

Energy Meter

1. Measurement of Electrical Energy
2. Construction of AC Energy Meter
3. Watt Hour Meter
4. Energy Meter with Lag Adjustment Devices
5. Energy Meter Testing


1. Sensor | Types of Sensor
2. Characteristics of Sensors
3. Temperature Sensor Temperature Measurement | Types of Temperature Sensor
4. Thermistor Thermometer | Thermistor Temperature Sensor | Construction and Principle
5. Thermistor Definition Construction and Applications
6. Resistance Temperature Detector or RTD | Construction and Working Principle
7. Bimetallic Strip Thermometer
8. Thermocouple Temperature Measurement
9. Voltage Sensor


1. Radiation Pyrometer | Types Working Principle
2. Optical Pyrometer | Construction and Working Principle

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