Electrical energy is a fundamental concept in physics and engineering, as well as a practical necessity for everyday life. Electrical energy is the amount of work that can be done by an electric current, or the amount of heat that can be produced by an electric resistance. Electrical energy is also related to electrical power, which is the rate of energy transfer per unit time. In this article, we will explain what electrical energy is, how it is measured, what units are used for it, and how to calculate it using simple formulas and examples.

## What is Electrical Energy?

Electrical** energy** is defined as the product of **electrical power** and **time**, and it is measured in **joules** (J). One joule of electrical energy is equal to one watt of power consumed for one second. Mathematically, we can write:

E=P×t

where,

- E is the electrical energy in joules (J)
- P is the electrical power in watts (W)
- t is the time in seconds (s)

Electrical energy and power are closely related concepts. Electrical power is the amount of electrical current that flows through a circuit due to a certain voltage difference across it. Electrical power is also the rate at which electrical energy is delivered or consumed by a device or a system. Electrical power is measured in watts (W), which are equivalent to joules per second (J/s). Mathematically, we can write:

P=V×I

where,

- P is the electrical power in watts (W)
- V is the voltage difference in volts (V)
- I is the electrical current in amperes (A)

To measure electrical energy, we need to know both the electrical power and the time duration for which it is applied or consumed. For example, if a 100 W light bulb is turned on for 10 minutes, then the electrical energy consumed by it is:

E=P×t=100 W×10×60 s=60,000 J

## Units of Electrical Energy

Joule is the standard unit of energy in the International System of Units (SI), but it is too small for practical purposes when dealing with large amounts of electrical energy. Therefore, other units are commonly used for measuring electrical energy, such as watt-hour (Wh), kilowatt-hour (kWh), megawatt-hour (MWh), and gigawatt-hour (GWh). These units are derived from multiplying the unit of power (watt) by the unit of time (hour).

**Watt-hour (Wh)**is the amount of electrical energy consumed by a device or a system that draws one watt of power for one hour. It shows how fast the power is consumed over a period of time. One watt-hour is equivalent to 3,600 joules. For example, a 15 W LED light bulb consumes 15 Wh of electrical energy in one hour.**Kilowatt-hour (kWh)**is a larger unit of electrical energy that is commonly used for household appliances and utility bills. One kilowatt-hour is equal to 1,000 watt-hours or 3.6 megajoules. For example, a refrigerator that draws 300 W of power consumes 300 Wh or 0.3 kWh of electrical energy in one hour.**Megawatt-hour (MWh)**is a unit of electrical energy that is typically used for measuring the output or consumption of large-scale power plants or grids. One megawatt-hour is equal to 1,000 kilowatt-hours or 3.6 gigajoules. For example, a coal-fired power plant that has a capacity of 600 MW produces 600 MWh of electrical energy in one hour.**Gigawatt-hour (GWh)**is a unit of electrical energy that is used for measuring very large amounts of electricity generation or consumption over long periods of time. One gigawatt-hour is equal to 1,000 megawatt-hours or 3.6 terajoules. For example, the total electricity consumption of the United States in 2019 was about 3,800 TWh or 3.8 million GWh.

The following table summarizes the units of electrical energy and their conversions:

Unit | Symbol | Equivalent to |
---|---|---|

Joule | J | 1 J |

Watt-hour | Wh | 3,600 J |

Kilowatt-hour | kWh | 3.6 MJ |

Megawatt-hour | MWh | 3.6 GJ |

Gigawatt-hour | GWh | 3.6 TJ |

## How to Measure Electrical Energy with a Meter

To measure electrical energy, we need a device that can record the electrical power and the time duration for which it is applied or consumed. Such a device is called an **electrical energy meter** or simply an **energy meter**. An energy meter is a device that measures the amount of electric energy consumed by a residence, a business, or an electrically powered device. It measures the total power consumed over a time interval and is calibrated in billing units, the most common one being the kilowatt-hour (kWh). Energy meters are used in domestic and industrial AC circuits for measuring power consumption.

There are different types of energy meters, depending on the technology, design, and application. Some of the common types are:

**Electromechanical meters**: These are the traditional meters that use a rotating metal disc and an electromagnet to measure the electrical power and record it on a series of dials or a mechanical counter. They are also known as induction meters or Ferraris meters. They are simple, robust, and accurate, but they have some drawbacks, such as mechanical wear and tear, susceptibility to tampering and magnetic interference, and inability to measure reactive power or power quality.**Electronic meters**: These are the modern meters that use electronic circuits and sensors to measure the electrical power and display it on a digital screen or transmit it to a remote system. They are also known as solid-state meters or digital meters. They have many advantages over electromechanical meters, such as higher accuracy, lower maintenance, remote reading and communication, multiple tariff options, and advanced features such as demand response, load profiling, and power quality analysis.**Smart meters**: These are advanced meters that use digital technology and wireless communication to measure the electrical power and send it to a central system or a smart grid network. They are also known as advanced metering infrastructure (AMI) or intelligent metering systems (IMS). They have many benefits over electronic meters, such as real-time data collection and analysis, dynamic pricing and billing, outage detection and restoration, demand-side management, and customer engagement.

The basic principle of measuring electrical energy with a meter is to multiply the electrical power by the time duration for which it is applied or consumed. However, depending on the type of meter and the type of load, there are different ways of calculating the electrical power. Some of the common methods are:

**Single-phase meters**: These are the meters that measure the electrical power in single-phase AC circuits, which have one live wire and one neutral wire. The simplest way of calculating the electrical power in a single-phase circuit is to multiply the voltage by the current. However, if the load is not purely resistive, then there is a phase difference between the voltage and the current, which reduces the effective power delivered to the load. This effective power is called real power or active power, and it is calculated by multiplying the voltage by the current by the power factor (cosine of the phase angle). The apparent power or total power is calculated by multiplying the voltage by the current without considering the power factor. The difference between the apparent power and the real power is called reactive power or idle power, which is wasted in heating up the circuit components. The ratio of real power to apparent power is called the power factor, which indicates how efficiently the load uses electrical energy.**Three-phase meters**: These are the meters that measure the electrical power in three-phase AC circuits, which have three live wires and one neutral wire (or four live wires in some cases). The three-phase circuits are more efficient and economical than single-phase circuits for transmitting and distributing large amounts of electrical power. The calculation of electrical power in a three-phase circuit depends on whether it is balanced or unbalanced, star-connected or delta-connected, and whether it has a neutral wire or not. In general, there are two methods of calculating the electrical power in a three-phase circuit: the line-to-line method and the line-to-neutral method. The line-to-line method uses the voltage difference between any two live wires (called line voltage) and the current in any live wire (called phase current). The line-to-neutral method uses the voltage difference between any live wire and the neutral wire (called phase voltage) and the current in any live wire (called phase current). The formulas for calculating the electrical power in a three-phase circuit using these methods are:

Pline−to−line=√3VlineIphasecosϕ

Pline−to−neutral=√3VphaseIphasecosϕ

where,

- P is the electrical power in watts (W)
- Vline is the line voltage in volts (V)
- Vphase is the phase voltage in volts (V)
- Iphase is the phase current in amperes (A)
- ϕ is the phase angle between the voltage and the current in radians or degrees

The line-to-line method is more commonly used for delta-connected loads, while the line-to-neutral method is more commonly used for star-connected loads. However, both methods can be used for any type of load, as long as the appropriate voltage and current values are known or measured.

## How to Calculate Electrical Energy Consumption

To calculate electrical energy consumption, we need to multiply the electrical power by the time duration for which it is consumed. The formula for calculating electrical energy consumption is:

E=P×t

where,

- E is the electrical energy consumption in joules (J) or watt-hours (Wh)
- P is the electrical power in watts (W)
- t is the time duration in seconds (s) or hours (h)

The unit of electrical energy consumption depends on the unit of time used in the formula. If we use seconds, then the unit of electrical energy consumption is joules (J). If we use hours, then the unit of electrical energy consumption is watt-hours (Wh). However, as mentioned before, the watt-hour is a very small unit for practical purposes, so we usually use larger units such as kilowatt-hours (kWh), megawatt-hour (MWh), or gigawatt-hour (GWh).

To convert between different units of electrical energy consumption, we can use the following conversion factors:

- 1 kWh = 1,000 Wh = 3.6 MJ
- 1 MWh = 1,000 kWh = 3.6 GJ
- 1 GWh = 1,000 MWh = 3.6 TJ

To calculate electrical energy consumption, we need to know or measure the electrical power and the time duration for which it is consumed. The electrical power can be calculated using the formulas given above for single-phase or three-phase circuits, depending on the type of load and connection. The time duration can be measured using a timer or a clock.

For example, if a consumer uses an 8 kW geyser, a 5 kW electric press, and four 100 W bulbs for 10 hours, then the electrical energy consumption can be calculated as follows:

The total electrical power is:

P=8 kW+5 kW+4×100 W=13.4 kW

The time duration is:

t=10 h

The electrical energy consumption is:

E=P×t=13.4 kW×10 h=134 kWh

## Summary

In this article, we have learned:

- What electrical energy is, and how it is related to electrical power
- What units are used for measuring electrical energy, and how do convert between them
- How to measure electrical energy with a meter, and what types of meters are available
- How to calculate electrical power in single-phase and three-phase circuits using different methods
- How to calculate electrical energy consumption using a simple formula and an example

We hope that this article has helped you understand how to measure electrical energy and why it is important for improving energy efficiency and reducing energy costs.