Transducer | Types of Transducer
TransducerInstrumentation is the heart of industrial applications. Instrumentation is the art and science of measuring and controlling different variables such as flow, level, temperature, angle, displacement etc. A basic instrumentation system consists of various devices. One of these various devices is a transducer. A transducer plays a very important role in any instrumentation system. An electrical transducer is a device which is capable of converting the physical quantity into a proportional electrical quantity such as voltage or electric current. Hence it converts any quantity to be measured into usable electrical signal. This physical quantity which is to be measured can be pressure, level, temperature, displacement etc. The output which is obtained from the transducer is in the electrical form and is equivalent to the measured quantity. For example, a temperature transducer will convert temperature to an equivalent electrical potential. This output signal can be used to control the physical quantity or display it.
Note that any device which is able convert one form of energy into another form is called as a transducer. For example, even a speaker can be called as a transducer as it converts electrical signal to pressure waves (sound). But an electrical transducer will convert a physical quantity to an electrical one.
Types of TransducerThere are of many different types of transducer, they can be classified based on various criteria as:
Types of Transducer based on Quantity to be Measured
- Temperature transducers (e.g. a thermocouple)
- Pressure transducers (e.g. a diaphragm)
- Displacement transducers (e.g. LVDT)
- Flow transducers
Types of Transducer based on the Principle of Operation
- Photovoltaic ( e.g. a solar cell )
- Mutual Induction
- Hall effect