RCCB (Residual Current Circuit Breaker) falls under the category of wide range of circuit breakers. As we know there are several types of miniature circuit breakers like MCCB which works on different operational principle and has different safety purposes.
Function: Residual Current Circuit Breaker is essentially a device which senses current and disconnects any low voltage (unbalanced current) circuit whenever there is any fault occurs.
Purpose: Residual Current Circuit Breaker basically is installed to prevent human from shocks or death caused by shocks. It prevents accidents by disconnecting the main circuit within fraction of seconds.
How Residual Current Circuit Breaker Works?
It has very simple working based on Kirchhoff’s Current Law ie the incoming current in a circuit must be equal to the outgoing current from that circuit. This circuit breaker is made such that whenever a fault occurs the current balance of line and neutral did not matches (imbalance occurs, as the fault current finds another earthing path of current).
Its circuit is made such that an every instance it compares the value of incoming and outgoing circuit current. Whenever it is not equal, the residual current which is basically the difference between the two currents actuates the circuit to trip/switch off.
Working Principle of Residual Current Circuit Breaker
The basic operating principle lies in the Toroidal Transformer shown in the diagram containing three coils. There are two coils say Primary (containing line current) and Secondary (containing neutral current) which produces equal and opposite fluxes if both currents are equal.
Whenever in the case there is a fault and both the currents changes, it creates out of balance flux, which in-turn produces the differential current which flows through the third coil (sensing coil shown in the figure) which is connected to relay.
The Toroidal transformer, sensing coil and relay together is known as RCD – Residual Current Device.
The test circuit is always included with the RCD which basically connects between the line conductor on the load side and the supply neutral. It helps to test the circuit when it is on or off the live supply. Whenever the test button is pushed current starts flowing through the test circuit depending upon the resistance provided in this circuit. This current passes through the RCD line side coil along with load current. But as this circuit bypasses neutral side coil of RCD, there will be an unbalance between the line side and neutral side coil of the device and consequently, the RCCB trips to disconnect the supply even in normal condition. This is how the test circuit tests the reliability of RCCB.
Types of Residual Current Circuit Breaker
2 Pole: It is for single phase line consisting of one live and one neutral wire slot in it.
4 Pole: It is designed for three phase line consisting of 4 slots where three phase wires and a neutral wire can be connected.
Hence it provides a real time protection device for major circuits used commercially in industries and other high voltage commercial places where there is a always a risk of shocks and accidental deaths due to it.