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Solar ElectricityWhen sunlight strikes on photo-voltaic solar cells, solar electricity is produced. That is why this is also referred to as Photo Voltaic Solar, or PV Solar.
Principles of Solar ElectricityGeneration of electricity by using solar energy depends on the photo voltaic effect. In photo voltaic effect, semiconductor p n junction produces electric potentia when it is exposed to sunlight. For that purpose, we make n type semiconductor layer of the junction very thin. It is less than 1 µm thick. The top layer is n layer. We generally refer it as emitter of the cell.
The bottom layer is p type semiconductor layer and it is much thicker than top n layer. It may be more than 100 µm thick. We call this bottom layer as base of the cell. The depletion region is created at the junction of these two layers due to immobile ions. When sunlight strikes on the cell, it easily reaches up to p n junction. The p n junction absorbs the photons of sunlight ray and consequently, produces electrons holes pairs in the junction. Actually, the energy associated with photon excites the valence electrons of the semiconductor atoms and hence the electrons jump to the conduction band from valence band leaving a hole behind each. The free electrons, find themselves in the depletion region will easily pass to the top n layer because of attraction force positive ions in the depletion region. In the same way the holes find themselves in the depletion region will easily pass to the bottom p layer because of attraction force of negative ions in the depletion region. This phenomenon creates a charge difference between the layers and resulting to a tiny potential difference between them. The unit of such combination of n type and p type semiconductor materials for producing electric potential difference in sunlight is called solar cell. Silicon is normally used as the semiconductor material for producing such solar cell.
Conductive metal strips attached to the cells take the solar cell or photo voltaic cell is not capable of producing desired electricity instead it produces very tiny amount of electricity. Hence for extracting the desired level of electricity required numbers of such cells are connected together in both parallel and series to form a solar module or photo voltaic module. Actually, only sunlight is not the factor. The main factor is light or beam of photons to produce electricity in the solar cell. Hence a solar cell can also work in cloudy weather as well as in moonlight but then electricity production rate becomes law as it depends upon the intensity of incident light ray.