Electrical and Electronics Engineering Books
Basic Construction of Wind TurbineClosely Related Articles
Solar Energy System | History of Solar Energy
Types of Solar Power Station
Components of a Solar Electric Generating System
What is photovoltaic effect?
Staebler Wronski Effect
Working Principle of Photovoltaic Cell or Solar Cell
Characteristics of a Solar Cell and Parameters of a Solar Cell
Solar Cell Manufacturing Technology
What is a Solar PV Module?
What is Standalone Solar Electric System?
Steam Boiler | Working principle and Types of Boiler
Methods of Firing Steam Boiler
Fire Tube Boiler | Operation and Types of Fire Tube Boiler
Water Tube Boiler | Operation and Types of Water Tube Boiler
Steam Boiler Furnace Grate Firebox Combustion Chamber of Furnace
Feed Water and Steam Circuit of Boiler
Boiler Feed Water Treatment Demineralization Reverse Osmosis Plant Deaerator
Coal Combustion Theory
Fluidized Bed Combustion | Types and Advantages of Fluidized Bed Combustion
Steam Condenser of Turbine
Jet Condenser | Low Level High Level Ejector Jet Condenser
Surface Steam Condenser
Economics of Power Generation
Cooling Tower Useful Terms and Cooling Tower Performance
Cooling Tower Material and Main Components
Power Plant Fire Protection System
Hydrant System for Power Plant Fire Protection
Medium Velocity Water Spray or MVWS System for Fire Protection
Foam Fire Protection System
Fire Detection and Alarm System
Gas Extinguishing System
Electric Power Generation
Power Plants and Types of Power Plant
Thermal Power Generation Plant or Thermal Power Station
Hydro Power Plant | Construction Working and History of Hydro power plant
Nuclear Power Station or Nuclear Power Plant
Diesel Power Station
Why Supply Frequency is 50 Hz or 60 Hz?
Economiser in Thermal Power Plant | Economiser
MHD Generation or Magneto Hydro Dynamic Power Generation
Cogeneration | Combined Heat and Power
Thermoelectric Power Generators or Seebeck Power Generation
Cost of Electrical Energy
Gas Turbine Power Plant
Steam Dryness Fraction
Superheated Steam and Steam Phase Diagram
Vapour Properties Mollier Chart Heat Capacities
What is Steam Flashing?
How to Calculate Steam Consumption During Plant Start Up
Effective Steam Distribution System
What is Water Hammer?
Engineering Thermodynamics Part 1
Science of Engineering Thermodynamics Part 2
Basic Law of Conservation and First Law of Thermodynamics
Carnot Cycle and Reversed Carnot Cycle
Enthalpy Entropy and Second Law of Thermodynamics
Rankine Cycle and Regenerative Feed Heating
Rankine Cycle for Closed Feed Water Heaters and Rankine Cycle Cogeneration
Ideal Verses Actual Rankine Cycle
Rankine Cycle Efficiency Improvement Techniques
Wind Energy Electricity Generation
Theory of Wind Turbine
Wind Turbine | Working and Types of Wind Turbine
Basic Construction of Wind Turbine
Construction of Solar CellAlthough this is basically a junction diode, but constructionally it is littlebit different form conventyional p - n junction diode. A very thin layer of p - type semiconductor is grown on a relatively thicker n - type semiconductor. We provide few finer electrodes on the top of the p - type semiconductor layer. These electrodes do not obstruct light to reach the thin p - type layer. Just below the p - type layer there is a p - n junction. We also provide a current collecting electrode at the bottom of the n - type layer. We encapsulate the entire assembly by thin glass to protect the solar cell from any mechanical shock.
Working Principle of Solar CellWhen light reaches the p-n junction, the light photons can easily enter in the junction, through very thin p-type layer. The light energy, in the form of photons, supplies sufficient energy to the junction to create a number of electron-hole pairs. The incident light, breaks the thermal equilibrium condition of the junction. The free electrons in the depletion region can quickly come to the n-type side of the junction. Similarly, the holes in the depletion can quickly come to the p-type side of the junction. Once, the newly created free electrons come to the n-type side, cannot further cross the junction because of barrier potential of the junction. Similarly, the newly created holes once come to the p-type side cannot further cross the junction became of same barrier potential of the junction. As the concentration of electrons becomes higher in one side i.e. n-type side of the junction and concentration of holes becomes more in another side i.e. the p-type side of the junction, the p-n junction will behave like a small battery cell. A voltage is set up which is known as photo voltage. If we connect a small load across the junction, there will be a tiny current flowing throgh it.
V-I Characteristics of a Photovoltaic Cell
Materials Used in Solar CellThe materials which are used for this purpose must have band gap close to 1.5ev. Commonly used materials are-
Criteria for Materials to be Used in Solar Cell
- Must have band gap from 1ev to 1.8ev.
- It must have high optical absorption.
- It must have high electrical conductivity.
- The raw material must be available in abundance and the cost of the material must be low.
Advantages of Solar Cell
- No pollution associated with it.
- It must last for a long time.
- No maintenance cost.
Disadvantages of Solar Cell
- It has high cost of installation.
- It has low efficiency.
- During cloudy day, the energy cannot be produced and also at night we will not get solar energy.
Uses of Solar Generation Systems
- It may be used to charge batteries.
- Used in light meters.
- It is used to power calculators and wrist watches.
- It can be used in spacecraft to provide electrical energy.
Conclusion: Though solar cell has some disadvantage associated it, but the disadvantages are expected to overcome as the technology advances, since the technology is advancing, the cost of solar plates, as well as the installation cost, will decrease down so that everybody can effort to install the system. Furthermore, the government is laying much emphasis on the solar energy so after some years we may expect that every household and also every electrical system is powered by solar or the renewable energy source.