What is Electric Field?

It is a field or space around a charge particle where its force can be experienced by any other charge particle. Electric field is also known as electrostatic field intensity. If a charge is positive charge, then the lines of force come out of this charge. Again for a negative charge, these lines of force come into this charge.line of force due to an isolated + ve and - ve charge When a charge particle enters the electric field of another charge particle it experiences a force as per Coulomb’s law. In other word, Electric Field is the region around a charge particle where the lines of force can be felt by another charge by getting repulsed or attracted as per their sign of charge. q charge experiences an repulsion due to Q1 Two positive charge particles repel each other, two negative charges repel each other and two opposite charge particles attract each other with force  .

This attraction or repulsion force  must be within the Electric field. This electric field is denoted by electric field Now, consider this force offered by this charge is  and this electric field is . Again  and both are proportional to charge q. Suppose, there are two positive charges, named Q1 and Q2. They are at R distance. Now, suppose Q2 charge creates an Electric Field where Q1(Q1 = q) tries to come in. This Q1 charge is called test charge. Now, as per Coulomb’s law both of them exert a repulsive force on each other when Q1 tries to come in the Electric Field of Q2. Their force of repulsion is, electric fielr equation From here we can say that , electric circuit equation Now, Electric force per unit +ve test charge which is called Electric Field (). So it can be written as (NB: Same Phenomenon occurs whether they are unlike charges)

What is the Direction of Electric Field?

Electrostatic force and electrostatic field both are vector quantity. As electric field is the force per unit test charge, so the direction of electrostatic field must follow the direction of electrostatic force. Again the direction of the electric field intensity is given by the direction of motion of the test charge. direction of electric field Electric Field Intensity is always perpendicular to the surface. As per figure, two elimentary surface areas () are considered, named A and B. So number of lines of force through A is equal to the number of lines of force through B. Now we can calculate, uniform electric field

What Happens for More Charges Around a Test Charge?

For a large number of charges Q1, Q2, Q3, Q4……etc is situated at various points in vacuum. A test charge is in their vicinity. So the test charge at any point will experience the force  (by superposition Principle) Now Electric Field at any point can be calculated as,

Properties of Electric Field Lines

Electric field Lines are two types.
  1. Uniform
  2. Non uniform
parallel Lines of force
 indicating uniform field non uniform converging field But for each type always follows some important mannerism as their characteristics or properties. They are-
  1. Electric field lines of force have a tendency to get separated from each other in the direction perpendicular to their lengths. They repel if they are of like charges.
  2. Electric lines of force start from the positively charged surface of a body and end negatively charged surface of a body.
  3. These lines of force are like elastic string, they comes to contract in length i.e. attract each other with respect to the opposite charges.
  4. Closeness of lines of forces symbolizes more strength of electric field and vice versa.
  5. Parallel lines indicate uniform field.
  6. Two lines of forces never intersect each other.
  7. Lines of force never pass through a conductor, i.e. field inside a conductor is always zero.
  8. The tangential direction at any point on the lines of forces indicates the direction of the force acting on the positive charge at that point.

What is the Value of Electric Field Outside a Solid Spherical Charged Conductor?

Let us consider a uniformly charged solid sphere of radius r. Consider a point P at a distance R from centre of the sphere (R > r). Now Total surface of the sphere is dS= 4ᴫR2 , Applying Gauss’s Law, Electric flux lines value of electric field outside a solid spherical charged conductor

What is the Value of Electric Field Due to Line Charge?

Consider a infinitely straight conductor that is thin and placed vertically. Suppose total length of the wire is L and total charge is q, then line charge density is l/q =λ . Gaussian Surface dS = 2ᴫrl. Let, Electric field intensity electric field is to be calculated at point P. value of electric field due to line charge Applying Gauss’s Law, Electric flux lines electric field equation electric field equation Keep it in your mind that for a point charge,

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