During explaining working principle of DC Generator, we have used a single loop DC generator. But now we will discuss about practical construction of DC Generator.
A DC generator has the following parts
- Pole of generator
- Field winding
- Armature of DC generator
- Brushes of generator and Commutator
Yoke of DC Generator
Yoke or the outer frame of DC generator serves two purposes,
- It holds the magnetic pole cores of the generator and acts as cover of the generator.
- It carries the magnetic field flux.
In small generator, yoke are made of cast iron. Cast iron is cheaper in cost but heavier than steel. But for large construction of DC generator, where weight of the machine is concerned, lighter cast steel or rolled steel is preferable for constructing yoke of DC generator. Normally larger yokes are formed by rounding a rectangular steel slab and the edges are welded together at the bottom. Then feet, terminal box and hangers are welded to the outer periphery of the yoke frame.
Pole Cores and Pole Shoes of DC GeneratorLet's first discuss about pole core of DC generator. There are mainly two types of construction available.
One: Solid pole core, where it is made of a solid single piece of cast iron or cast steel.
Two: Laminated pole core, where it made of numbers of thin, limitations of annealed steel which are riveted together.
The thickness of the lamination is in the range of 0.04" to 0.01". The pole core is fixed to the inner periphery of the yoke by means of bolts through the yoke and into the pole body. Since the poles project inwards they are called salient poles.
The pole shoes are so typically shaped, that, they spread out the magnetic flux in the air gap and reduce the reluctance of the magnetic path.
Due to their larger cross-section they hold the pole coil at its position.
Pole Coils: The field coils or pole coils are wound around the pole core. These are a simple coil of insulated copper wire or strip, which placed on the pole which placed between yoke and pole shoes as shown.
Armature Core of DC GeneratorThe purpose of armature core is to hold the armature winding and provide low reluctance path for the flux through the armature from N pole to S pole. Although a DC generator provides direct current but induced current in the armature is alternating in nature. That is why, cylindrical or drum shaped armature core is build up of circular laminated sheet. In every circular lamination, slots are either die-cut or punched on the outer periphery and the key way is located on the inner periphery as shown. Air ducts are also punched of cut on each lamination for circulation of air through the core for providing better cooling. Up to diameter of 40", the circular stampings are cut out in one piece of lamination sheet. But above 40", diameter, number of suitable sections of a circle is cut. A complete circle of lamination is formed by four or six or even eight such segment.
Armature Winding of DC GeneratorArmature winding are generally formed wound. These are first wound in the form of flat rectangular coils and are then pulled into their proper shape in a coil puller. Various conductors of the coils are insulated from each other. The conductors are placed in the armature slots, which are lined with tough insulating material. This slot insulation is folded over above the armature conductors placed in it and secured in place by special hard wooden or fiber wedges. Two types of armature windings are used – Lap winding and Wave winding.
Commutator of DC GeneratorThe commutator plays a vital role in DC generator. It collects current from armature and sends it to the load as direct current. It actually takes alternating current from armature and converts it to direct current and then send it to external load. It is cylindrical structured and is build up of wedge-shaped segments of high conductivity, hard drawn or drop forged copper. Each segment is insulated from the shaft by means of insulated commutator segment shown below. Each commutator segment is connected with corresponding armature conductor through segment riser or lug.
Brushes of DC GeneratorThe brushes are made of carbon. These are rectangular block shaped. The only function of these carbon brushes of DC generator is to collect current from commutator segments. The brushes are housed in the rectangular box shaped brush holder or brush box. As shown in figure, the brush face is placed on the commutator segment which is attached to the brush holder.
Bearing of DC GeneratorFor small machine, ball bearing is used and for heavy duty DC generator, roller bearing is used. The bearing must always be lubricated properly for smooth operation and long life of generator.