Now we are going to discuss about armature winding in details. Before going through this section, we should understand some basic terms related to armature winding of DC generator.
Definition of Pole Pitch
The pole pitch is defined as peripheral distance between center of two adjacent poles in DC machine. This distance is measured in term of armature slots or armature conductor come between two adjacent pole centers.
Pole Pitch is naturally equal to the total number of armature slots divided by the number of poles in the machine. If there are 96 slots on the armature periphery and 4 numbers of poles in the machine, the numbers of armature slots come between two adjacent poles centres would be 96/4 = 24. Hence, the pole pitch of that DC machine would be 24.
As we have seen that, pole pitch is equal to total numbers of armature slots divided by total numbers of poles, we alternatively refer it as armature slots per pole.
Coil Span or Coil Pitch
Coil of dc machine is made up of one turn or multi turns of the conductor. If the coil is made up of single turn or a single loop of conductor, it is called single turn coil. If the coil is made up of more than one turn of a conductor, we refer it as a multi-turn coil. A single turn coil will have one conductor per side of the coil whereas, in multi turns coil, there will be multiple conductors per side of the coil. Whatever may be the number of conductors per side of the coil, each coil side is placed inside one armature slot only. That means all conductors of one side of a particular coil must be placed in one single slot only. Similarly, we place all conductors of opposite side of the coil in another single armature slot.
Definition of Coil Span
Coil span is defined as the peripheral distance between two sides of a coil, measured in term of the number of armature slots between them. That means, after placing one side of the coil in a particular slot, after how many conjugative slots, the other side of the same coil is placed on the armature. This number is known as coil span.
If the coil span is equal to the pole pitch, then the armature winding is said to be full – pitched. In this situation, two opposite sides of the coil lie under two opposite poles. Hence emf induced in one side of the coil will be in 180o phase shift with emf induced in the other side of the coil. Thus, the total terminal voltage of the coil will be nothing but the direct arithmetic sum of these two emfs.
If the coil span is less than the pole pitch, then the winding is referred as fractional pitched. In this coil, there will be a phase difference between induced emfs in two sides, less than 180o. Hence resultant terminal voltage of the coil is vector sum of these two emfs and it is less than that of full-pitched coil.
In practice, coil pitch (or Span) as low as eight tenth of a Pole Pitch, is employed without much serious reduction in emf. Fractional pitched windings are purposely used to effect substantial saving in copper of the end connection and for improving commutation.
Pitch of Armature Winding
Back Pitch (Yb)
A coil advances on the back of the armature. This advancement is measured in terms of armature conductors and is called back pitch. It is equal to the number difference of the conductor connected to a given segment of the commutator.
Front Pitch (Yf)
The number of armature conductors or elements spanned by a coil on the front is called front pitch.
Alternatively, we define the front-pitch as the distance between the second conductor of the next coil which connects the front, i.e., commutator end of the armature. In other words, it is the number difference of the conductors connected together at the back end of the armature. We are showing both front and back pitches for a lap, and a wave windings in the figure below.
Resultant Pitch (Y)
It is the distance between the beginning of one coil and the beginning of the next coil to which it is connected.
As a matter of precautions, we should keep in mind that all these pitches, though normally stated concerning armature conductors, are also times of armature slots or commutator bars.
Commutator pitch is defined as the distance between two commutator segments which two ends of same armature coil are connected. We measure commutator pitch in term of commutator bars or segment.
Single Layer Armature Winding
We place armature coil sides in the armature slots differently. In some arrangement, each one side of an armature coil occupies a single slot. In other words, we place one coil side in each armature slot. We refer this arrangement as single layer winding.
Two Layer Armature Winding
In other types of armature winding, arrangement two coil sides occupy every armature slot; one occupies upper half, and another one occupies the lower half of the slot. We so place the coils in two layers winding that if one side occupies upper half, then another side occupies the lower half of some other slot at a distance of one coil pitch away.