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Classification of Electrical Conducting Materials

Electrical conducting material are the basic requirement for electrical engineering products. The electrical conducting material can be classified as below-

Based on Resistivity or Conductivity

A classification chart of conducting materials based on resistivity or conductivity is shown in figure below-

classification chart of conducting materials based on resistivity or conductivity

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Classification of Electrical Conducting Materials

Low Resistivity or High Conductivity Conducting Material

Material having low resistivity or high conductivity are very useful in electrical engineering products. These material used as conductors for all kind of windings required in electrical machines, apparatus and devices. These material are also used as conductor in transmission and distribution of electrical energy. Some of low resistivity or high conductivity materials and their resistivity are given in table below –

High Resistivity or Low Conductivity Conducting Material

Materials having High resistivity or Low conductivity conducting are very useful for electrical engineering products. These material are used to manufacture the filaments for incandescent lamp, heating elements for electric heaters, space heaters and electric irons etc. Some of materials having High resistivity or Low conductivity are listed below:

Based on Area of Application

A classification chart of conducting materials based on their applications is shown in figure below- Based on Area of application

Materials Used as Conductor for Coils of Electrical Machines

Materials having low resistivity or high conductivity such as copper, silver and aluminum can be used for making coils for electrical machines. However, looking to optimum conductivity, mechanical strength and cost, copper is much suitable for making coils for electrical machines.

Materials for Heating Elements

Materials having high resistivity or low conductivity such as Nichrome, Kanthal, Cupronickel and Platinum etc. are used for making heating elements. Materials used for heating elements must possess following properties-

Materials for Lamp Filaments

Materials having high resistivity or low conductivity such as Carbon, Tantalum and Tungsten etc. are used for making incandescent lamp filament. Materials used for making incandescent lamp filament must possess following properties-

Material Used for Transmission Line

Materials used for making conductor for transmission line must possess following properties – Materials use for transmission lines are listed below-

Bimetals

Many combinations of metals with different “Coefficient of linear thermal expansion” can be used to form the bimetals. Some of the commonly used combinations for making bimetallic strips are listed below-

Electrical Contact Materials

The successful operation of electrical contacts is function of various factors. While selecting a suitable material for electrical contact, we have to consider the factors. Some of most important factors of these are listed below –

Electrical Carbon Materials

Carbon in widely used in electrical engineering. Electrical carbon materials are manufactured from graphite and other forms of carbon. Carbon is having following applications in electrical Engineering-

Material for Brushes Used in Electrical Machines

Before selecting the material for brushes, we should keep in our mind following requirements in a brush – Material used for Brushes in electrical machines are listed below-

Materials Used for Fuse Elements

Fuse element is primary requirement of a fuse unit. The fuse element should have following properties- Low resistance - to avoid the undesirable voltage drop across the fuse element, so that it should effects the normal functioning or performance of circuit or device or equipment Low melting point - the fuse element must have low melting point. So that it blow out due to heating by excess current during over load or short circuit. Different types of metals and alloys are used for fuse element. Some of these elements are listed below –


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