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To facilitate this process, India is divided into 5 regions: Northern, Southern, Eastern, Western and North eastern region. Further within every state we have a SLDC (State Load Dispatch Center). The distribution system is carried out by many distribution companies (DISCOMS) and SEBs (State Electricity Board.).
Types: There are two tariff systems, one for the consumer which they pay to the DISCOMS and the other one is for the DISCOMS which they pay to the generating stations.
Let us first discuss about the tariff of electricity for the consumer i.e the cost consumer pay to the DISCOMS. The total cost levied on the consumer is divided into 3 parts usually referred as 3 part tariff system.
Here, a = fixed cost independent of the maximum demand and actually energy consumed. This cost takes into account the cost of land, labor, interest on capital cost, depreciation etc.
b = constant which when multiplied by maximum KW demand gives the semi fixed cost. This takes into account the size of power plant as maximum demand determines the size of power plant.
c = a constant which when multiplied by by actual energy consumed KW-h gives the running cost. This takes into account the cost of fuel consumed in producing power.
Thus the total amount paid by the consumer depends on its maximum demand, actual energy consumed plus some constant sum of money.
Now electrical energy is generally expressed in terms of unit, and 1 unit = 1 KW-hr (1 kw of power consumed for 1 hr).
IMPORTANT: All these costs are calculated on active power consumed. It is mandatory for the consumer to maintain a power factor of 0.8 or above otherwise penalty is levied on them depending on the deviation. Let us now discuss about the tariff system existent in India for the DISCOMS. It is regulated by CERC (Central Electricity Regulatory Commission). This tariff system is called availability based tariff (ABT). As its name suggest it is a tariff system which depends on the availability of power. It is a frequency based tariff mechanism which tends to make the power system more stable and reliable. This tariff mechanism also has of 3 parts: The fixed charge is same as that discussed above. The capacity charge is for making the power available to them and depends on the capacity of plant and the third one is UI. To understand the UI charges let us see the mechanism.
Mechanism of ABT
- The generating stations commit a day ahead about the schedule power which they can provide to the regional load dispatch center (RLDC).
- The RLDC conveys this information to various SLDC which in turn collects the information from various state DISCOMS about the load demand from various types of consumers.
- The SLDC sends load demand to RLDC and now RLDC allocates the power accordingly to the various states.
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