# Impedance Parameters or Z Parameters

on 24/2/2012 & Updated on Friday 27th of April 2018 at 04:33:07 PMFrom, both of the figures above, it is clear that, there are only four variables. One pair of voltage variables V_{1} and V_{2} and one pair of current variables I_{1} and I_{2}. Thus, there are only four ratio of voltage to current, and those are,
These four ration are considered as parameters of the network. We all know,

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This is why these parameters are called either **impedance parameter** or** Z parameter**.
The values of these **Z parameter**s of a two port network, can be evaluated by making once
and another once

Let us explain in brief. For that, first we make the output port of the network open circuited as shown below.

In this case as the output is open, there will be no current in the output port. i.e.
In this condition, the ratio of input voltage to input current, is mathematically represented as,
This known as input impedance of the network, while output port is open. This is denoted by Z_{11}
So, finally,
Similarly,
Now, Voltage source V_{2} is connected across port 2 that is output port, and the port 1 or input port is kept open as shown below
Now, ratio of V_{2} and I_{2} at I_{1}=0 is,
This is called open circuit output impedance. Similarly,
Thus,
Since, all these above shown **Z parameter** have been obtained by open circuiting output port or input port, the parameters are also referred as open circuit **impedance parameter**. Now, we can relate all voltage and current variables of a two port network by these **Z parameters**.
These two equations can be represented in matrix form, as shown below,
In the equation (i), if we put I_{2} = 0, We get,
Similarly if we put I_{1}=0, in the same equation, we get,
In same way, by putting I_{2} = 0 and I_{1} = 0 alternatively in equation (ii) We can prove,
Z_{11} and Z_{22} are also referred as driving point impedance.
Z_{21} and Z_{12} are also referred as transfer impedance. For better understanding, let us take the circuit below,
Let us put a voltage source V_{1} at input,
Now,
Now, let us connect one voltage source V_{2 } at output port and leave the input port as open as shown, below
Now,
So, Here,
When in a two port network, we get,
We can call it as symetrical network. Since, here,

As this ratio is same, the same voltage at any of the port results in same currents in the network. That means if we apply voltage V_{1} at output port then output current will be I_{1}. That means the network will have a mirror like symmetry between output and input ports, in respect of the imaginary central line.
When we get,
Means,
That means, if input exication and output response of the network are interchanged, the transfer impedance remain same.
Suppose, V is the input voltage and I is the output current in the network as shown below.
Now if we connect a current source of I at input port, so the voltage response of the network would be, V, at output port.
This is because the ratio of voltage to current between input and output remain same in both conditions. This is Reciprocity Theorem. The two port network behave like that is referred as reciprocal network.

For symetrical network,
For reciprocal network

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