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Feed Water and Steam Circuit of Boiler

Published on 24/2/2012 & updated on 22/8/2018
There are different components present in feed water and steam circuit of boiler and we should know some essential components of these circuit and these are Economizer, boiler drums, water tubes, and super heater.


Another essential component of Feed Water and Steam Feed Water Steam Circuit Circuit is Boiler Drum.

Boiler Drums

Two types of boiler drums used in all types of boilers are steam drum and mud drum. Both the drums have specific functions.

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Feed Water and Steam Circuit of Boiler

Steam Drum

The functions of steam drum in feed water steam circuit are:
  1. To store water and steam sufficiently to meet varying load demands.
  2. To provide a head and thereby aiding the natural circulation of water through water tubes.
  3. To separate vapour or steam from water-steam mixture, discharged by the risers.
  4. To aid in chemical treatments to remove dissolved O2 and to maintain required pH.
Separating steam from two-phase mixtures in the steam drum:

Mud Drum

Mud drum is another header which is situated at the bottom of the boiler and usually helps in natural circulation of water through the steam tubes. Mud drum usually contains water at saturation temperature, and also the precipitated salts and impurities known as slurries. It is periodically washed to remove the slurry by opening the discharge valve.

Water Tubes

These are also essential for feed water and steam circuit of boiler Water tubes are bent or straight hollow tubes through which steam water mixture circulates. There are two types of water tubes, viz. down-comer and riser. This down comer, riser assembly is also known as Evaporator (or boiler proper). In the evaporator actual state change from water to steam occurs. In the T-S diagram beside, the zone of evaporator is illustrated. ‘Qeva’ is the heat absorbed by evaporator. It is mainly the latent heat of vaporization of water. Feed Water Steam Circuit

Down comers Water Tubes

As the name suggests down-comers are the water tubes through which water comes down from steam drum to mud drum (see fig.). No vapour bubble should flow along with saturated water from the drum to the down comers. This will reduce the density difference and the pressure head for natural circulation.

Risers Water Tubes

Risers are the water tubes through which steam water two-phase mixture at saturation temperature goes up from mud drum to steam drum. Risers are usually close to furnaces, while the down-comers are away from the furnaces.

Super Heaters

Super heater is another important part of Feed Water and Steam Circuit of Boiler

Functions of Super Heater

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