Working Principle of Electric GeneratorPublished on 24/2/2016 & updated on 23/8/2018
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Now we will show you how does electricity get produced when we rotate single loop of a conductor in a magnetic field. During rotation, when one side of the loop comes in front of the magnetic north pole, the instantaneous motion of the conductor will be upward hence according to Fleming's Right Hand Rule the induced emf will have inward direction. At the same time, another side of the loop comes in front of the magnetic south pole, the instantaneous motion of the conductor will be downward hence according to Fleming's Right Hand Rule the induced emf will have outward direction. During rotation, each side of the loop comes under magnetic north pole and south pole alternately. Again in the pictures, when any of the coil sides (conductors) comes under north pole the motion of the conductor would be upward and when it comes under south pole the motion of the conductor would be downward. Hence, the emf induced in the loop alters its direction continuously. This is the most basic conceptual model of an electric generator. We also call it a single loop electric generator. We can collect the induced emf in the loop in two different ways.
Let us connect slip ring with both ends of the loop. We can connect a load with the loop through the brushes rest on the slip rings as shown. In this case, the alternating electricity produced in the loop comes the load. This is an AC electric generator.
We can also collect the electricity produced in the rotating loop through commutator and brush arrangement as shown in the animated picture below. In this case, the electricity produced in the loop (here the rotating loop of the single loop generator can also be referred as the armature) gets rectified through the commutator and the load gets a DC power. This is the most basic conceptual model of a DC generator.
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