Electric Circuit or Electrical Network
The interconnection of various electrical circuit elements in a prescribed manner to form a closed path is called an electric circuit. The system in which electric current can flow from source to load and after delivering energy at load the current can return to the other terminal of source, is referred as electric circuit. The main parts of an ideal electric circuit are
- Electrical sources for delivering electricity to the circuit and these are mainly electric generators and batteries
- Controlling devices for controlling electricity and these are mainly switches, circuit breakers, MCBs, and potentiometer like devices etc.
- Protection devices for protecting the circuit from abnormal conditions and these are mainly electric fuses, MCBs, switchgear systems.
- Conducting path to carry electric current from one point to other in the circuit and these are mainly wires or conductors.
In this figure shows a simple electric circuit containingcurrent I, flows in the circuit and a potential drop of V volts appears across resistor.
Basic Properties of Electric Circuits
- A circuit is always a closed path.
- A circuit always contains at least an energy source which acts as a source of electrons.
- The electric elements include uncontrolled and controlled source of energy, resistors, capacitors, inductors, etc.
- In an electric circuit flow of electrons takes place from negative terminal to positive terminal.
- Direction of flow of conventional current is from positive to negative terminal.
- Flow of current leads to potential drop across the various elements.
Types of Electric CircuitThe electric circuit can be categorized in three different ways
- Open circuit
- Closed circuit
- Short circuit
Open CircuitIf due to disconnection of any part of an electric circuit if there is no flow of current through the circuit, is said to be an open circuited.
Closed CircuitIf there is no discontinuity in the circuit and current can flow from one part to another part of the circuit, the circuit is said to be closed circuit.
Short CircuitIf two or more phases, one or more phases and earth or neutral of AC system or positive and negative wires or positive or negative wires and earth of DC system touch together directly or connected together by a zero impedance path then the circuit is said to be short circuited. Electric circuits can further be categorized according to their structural features.
- Series Circuit
- Parallel Circuit
- Series Parallel Circuit.