# Digital to Analog Converter or DAC

**digital to analog convertor**.

**Digital to analog convertor**is an electronics device in form of IC, which converts digital signal to its equivalent analog signal. The

**DAC**can be realized in many ways. One of the popular

**digital to analog convertor**circuit is

**binary weighted ladder**.

This is basically a summing amplifier designed with suitable resistances, as shown below.
Now, applying Kirchhoff Current Law at node 1 of the above circuit, we get,
Before going through the above circuit of **digital to analog convertor**, Let us put some suitable values of different resistors connected in the circuit.

Such as, R_{f} = 10KΩ, R_{1} = 10KΩ, R_{2} = 20KΩ, R_{3} = 40KΩ and R_{4}= 80KΩ.

Putting these values in equation (i) we get,
Now, let us also apply voltage at input terminals either 0 or 1 volt. Putting , 0 volt at all inputs,(i.e. v_{1} = 0, v_{2} = 0, v_{3} = 0 and v_{4} = 0) we get,
So, for digital input 0000, we get analog output 0 volt. Putting, 1V at last input only,(i.e. v_{1}=0, v_{2}=0, v_{3}=0 and v_{4}=1V), we get,
Similarly, for v_{1} = 0, v_{2} = 0, v_{3} = 1, v_{4} = 0
For, v_{1} = 0, v_{2} = 0, v_{3} = 1, v_{4} = 1
In this way the inputs and corresponding outputs can be represented in a table as shown below.

Binary Input [v_{1} v_{2} v_{3} v_{4}] | Decimal Value | Output(-v_{0}) |

0000 | 0 | 0 |

0001 | 1 | 0.125 |

0010 | 2 | 0.25 |

0011 | 3 | 0.375 |

0100 | 4 | 0.5 |

0101 | 5 | 0.625 |

0110 | 6 | 0.75 |

0111 | 7 | 0.875 |

1000 | 8 | 1.0 |

1001 | 9 | 1.125 |

1010 | 10 | 1.25 |

1011 | 11 | 1.375 |

1100 | 12 | 1.5 |

1101 | 13 | 1.625 |

1110 | 14 | 1.75 |

1111 | 15 | 1.875 |

So, the output is analog and it is linearly proportional the decimal equivalent of digital inputs. The above example was of a four bit

**DAC**. A four bit

**DAC**can be represented as shown below.

**Comments/Feedbacks**

Closely Related Articles Op-amp | Working Principle of Op-ampOp amp 741 or Operational Amplifier 741 ICNegative Feedback in Op amp and Closed Loop Gain of Op ampIdeal OP AmpInverting AmplifierNon Inverting AmplifierSumming AmplifierDifference AmplifierIntegratorDifferentiatorMore Related Articles Ohm's Law | Equation Formula and Limitation of Ohm's LawNodes, Branches and Loops of a CircuitKirchhoff Current Law and Kirchhoff Voltage LawResistances in Series and Resistances in ParallelSeries ResistanceVoltage in SeriesVoltage in ParallelElectric Current and Voltage Division RuleDelta - Star transformation | Star - Delta TransformationNodal Analysis in Electric CircuitsSingle and Multi Mesh AnalysisSuperposition TheoremThevenin Theorem and Thevenin Equivalent Voltage and ResistanceElectrical Source TransformationNorton Theorem | Norton Equivalent Current and ResistanceMaximum Power Transfer TheoremTellegen TheoremReciprocity TheoremCompensation TheoremSubstitution TheoremMillman TheoremPower in AC CircuitTrees and Cotrees of Electric NetworkWhat is Incidence Matrix?Cutset Matrix Concept of Electric CircuitTwo Port NetworkImpedance Parameters or Z ParametersAdmittance Parameters or Y ParametersHybrid Parameters or h Parameters New Articles Series and Parallel Inductors Electric PowerMeasurement of Losses in Shunt ReactorThree Phase Shunt ReactorMeasurement of Insulation ResistanceAmpere's Circuital Law