Electromagnetic Interference (EMI): What it is & How To Reduce it

What is Electromagnetic Interference? Electromagnetic interference (or EMI) is a disruption that affects an electrical circuit because of either electromagnetic induction or externally emitted electromagnetic radiation. EMI is the interference from one electrical or electronic system to another caused by the electromagnetic fields generated by its operation. Electromagnetic (EM) waves are created when an electric … Read more

Conductance: What is it? (Definition, Units & Formula)

What is Conductance? Conductance (also known as electrical conductance) is defined as the potential for a substance to conduct electricity. Conductance is the measure of how easily electrical current (i.e. flow of charge) can pass through a material. Conductance is the inverse (or reciprocal) of electrical resistance, represented as 1/R. To have a better understanding … Read more

Active Low Pass Filter: Design and Applications

What Is An Active Low Pass Filter

What is an Active Filter? An active filter is a type of filter that includes one or more active circuit components such as a transistor or an operational amplifier (Op-Amp). They derive their energy from an external source of energy and use it to increase or amplify the signal output. Operational amplifiers can also be … Read more

Programmable Logic Controllers (PLCs): Basics, Types & Applications

What is a PLC? PLC stands for “Programmable Logic Controller”. A PLC is a computer specially designed to operate reliably under harsh industrial environments – such as extreme temperatures, wet, dry, and/or dusty conditions. PLCs are used to automate industrial processes such as a manufacturing plant’s assembly line, an ore processing plant, or a wastewater … Read more

SCADA System: What is it? (Supervisory Control and Data Acquisition)

What is SCADA SCADA stands for “Supervisory Control and Data Acquisition”. SCADA is a type of process control system architecture that uses computers, networked data communications and graphical Human Machine Interfaces (HMIs) to enable a high-level process supervisory management and control. SCADA systems communicate with other devices such as programmable logic controllers (PLCs) and PID … Read more

Types of Defibrillators (AC and DC Defibrillators)

Types Of Defibrillators

Two types of defibrillators are showing below. AC defibrillators DC defibrillators AC Defibrillators An AC defibrillator is the oldest and simplest type. The construction of AC defibrillator is such that appropriate values are available for internal and external defibrillation. In AC defibrillation, a shock of 50 Hz a.c frequency is applied to the chest for … Read more

Biological Amplifiers and Types of Biological Amplifiers

What Is A Bioamplifier

Why is Bio Amplifier Required? Generally, biological/bioelectric signals have low amplitude and low frequency. Therefore, to increase the amplitude level of biosignals amplifiers are designed. The outputs from these amplifiers are used for further analysis and they appear as ECG, EMG, or any bioelectric waveforms. Such amplifiers are defined as Bio Amplifiers or Biomedical Amplifiers. … Read more

Action Potential and Resting Potential

What Is Action Resting Potential

In a cell membrane, the outside fluid is extra-cellular fluid and inside fluid is intra-cellular fluid. The extra-cellular fluid has a large concentration of sodium ions and chloride ions but less concentration of potassium ions. The intra-cellular fluid has a high concentration of potassium ions than the sodium ions. In our body, neuron sends electrochemical … Read more

Biomedical Transducers Types of Biomedical Transducers

What Are Biomedical Transducers

Non-electrical parameters such as temperature, heart sound, blood pressure are measured from the human body with electronic equipment. Transducers are the devices that convert biological parameters to electrical signals. The process of conversion is Transduction. Generally, transducers convert one form of energy into another form of energy. Transducers are of two types. 1. Active Transducers: … Read more

Application of Transducers in Biomedical Instrumentation

Applications Of Transducers

Application of Piezoelectric Transducer Crystal microphone measures and records the Heart sounds (Phonocardiography). The microphone operates in the flat frequency range of 20 to 1000 Hz, which suppresses the breathing sounds and room noise. Sounds from heart chambers are measured with Catheter-tip piezoelectric sensors. A piezoelectric crystal detects the Korotkoff sounds during systolic and diastolic … Read more