## How to Calculate Equivalent Resistance (Series & Parallel Circuit Examples)

What is Equivalent Resistance? The equivalent resistance is defined as a point where the total resistance is measured in a parallel or series circuit (in either the whole circuit or in a part of the circuit). The equivalent resistance is defined between two terminals or nodes of the network. Equivalent resistance may sound complicated, but … Read more

## Q Factor: What is it? (And How Do You Measure It?)

What is Q Factor? Q factor (also known as Quality Factor or Q-factor) is defined as a dimensionless parameter that describes the underdamped condition of an oscillator or resonator. The quality factor measures the performance of a coil, a capacitor, or an inductor in terms of its losses and resonator bandwidth. The definition of Quality … Read more

## Watts Law: What is it? Formula, Examples & Watt’s Law Triangle

What is Watts Law? Watt’s law defines the relationship between power, amperage, and voltage drop in an electrical circuit. Watts Law also states that the power of an electrical circuit is the product of its voltage and current. Watts Law Formula The formula for Watts law can be given as follows. It gives the relationships … Read more

## SWR Meter: What Is It & How To Use It

What is an SWR Meter? A standing wave ratio meter – also known as an SWR meter, ISWR meter (current “I” SWR), or VSWR meter (voltage SWR) – is defined as a device that measures the standing wave ratio (SWR) in a transmission line. The SWR meter indirectly measures the degree of mismatch between a … Read more

## Cutoff Frequency: What is it? Equation & How To Find it

What is Cutoff Frequency? Cutoff frequency (also known as corner frequency, or break frequency) is defined as a boundary in a system’s frequency response at which energy flowing through the system begins to be attenuated (reflected or reduced) rather than passing through. The cutoff frequency or corner frequency in electronics is the frequency either above … Read more

## Nominal Voltage: What is it? (vs. Operating & Rated Voltage)

What is Nominal Voltage? Nominal voltage is defined as a value assigned to a circuit or system for the purpose of conveniently designating its voltage class (e.g. 120/240 volts, 300 volts, 480Y/277 volts). The actual voltage at which a circuit operates can vary from the nominal voltage within a range that permits satisfactory operation of … Read more

## Electromagnetic Interference (EMI): What it is & How To Reduce it

What is Electromagnetic Interference? Electromagnetic interference (or EMI) is a disruption that affects an electrical circuit because of either electromagnetic induction or externally emitted electromagnetic radiation. EMI is the interference from one electrical or electronic system to another caused by the electromagnetic fields generated by its operation. Electromagnetic (EM) waves are created when an electric … Read more

## Conductance: What is it? (Definition, Units & Formula)

What is Conductance? Conductance (also known as electrical conductance) is defined as the potential for a substance to conduct electricity. Conductance is the measure of how easily electrical current (i.e. flow of charge) can pass through a material. Conductance is the inverse (or reciprocal) of electrical resistance, represented as 1/R. To have a better understanding … Read more

## Active Low Pass Filter: Design and Applications

What is an Active Filter? An active filter is a type of filter that includes one or more active circuit components such as a transistor or an operational amplifier (Op-Amp). They derive their energy from an external source of energy and use it to increase or amplify the signal output. Operational amplifiers can also be … Read more

## Programmable Logic Controllers (PLCs): Basics, Types & Applications

What is a PLC? PLC stands for “Programmable Logic Controller”. A PLC is a computer specially designed to operate reliably under harsh industrial environments – such as extreme temperatures, wet, dry, and/or dusty conditions. PLCs are used to automate industrial processes such as a manufacturing plant’s assembly line, an ore processing plant, or a wastewater … Read more