How to Find the DC Gain of a Transfer Function (Examples Included)

What is a Transfer Function? A transfer function describes the relationship between the output signal of a control system and the input signal. A block diagram is a visualization of the control system that uses blocks to represent the transfer function and arrows representing the different input and output signals. The transfer function is a … Read more

Thermopile: What Are They (And How Do They Work?

What is a Thermopile? A thermopile is an electronic device that converts thermal energy to electrical energy. It is a serial-interconnected array of thermocouples, consisting of two different materials with large thermo-electric power and opposite polarities. It is less commonly connected in parallel. How a Thermopile Works? A single thermoelectric cell’s voltage output is very … Read more

ELI the ICE man: What is it (And What Does it Stand For)

What is ELI the ICE man? ELI the ICE man is used to remember the relationship between current and voltage in an inductor and capacitor. ELI the ICE man stands for the fact that voltage [E] leads current [I] in an inductor [L] (that’s the ELI part) and current [I] leads voltage [E] in a … Read more

How to Calculate Equivalent Resistance (Series & Parallel Circuit Examples)

What is Equivalent Resistance? The equivalent resistance is defined as a point where the total resistance is measured in a parallel or series circuit (in either the whole circuit or in a part of the circuit). The equivalent resistance is defined between two terminals or nodes of the network. Equivalent resistance may sound complicated, but … Read more

Q Factor: What is it? (And How Do You Measure It?)

What is Q Factor? Q factor (also known as Quality Factor or Q-factor) is defined as a dimensionless parameter that describes the underdamped condition of an oscillator or resonator. The quality factor measures the performance of a coil, a capacitor, or an inductor in terms of its losses and resonator bandwidth. The definition of Quality … Read more

Watts Law: What is it? Formula, Examples & Watt’s Law Triangle

What is Watts Law? Watt’s law defines the relationship between power, amperage, and voltage drop in an electrical circuit. Watts Law also states that the power of an electrical circuit is the product of its voltage and current. Watts Law Formula The formula for Watts law can be given as follows. It gives the relationships … Read more

SWR Meter: What Is It & How To Use It

What is an SWR Meter? A standing wave ratio meter – also known as an SWR meter, ISWR meter (current “I” SWR), or VSWR meter (voltage SWR) – is defined as a device that measures the standing wave ratio (SWR) in a transmission line. The SWR meter indirectly measures the degree of mismatch between a … Read more

Cutoff Frequency: What is it? Equation & How To Find it

What is Cutoff Frequency? Cutoff frequency (also known as corner frequency, or break frequency) is defined as a boundary in a system’s frequency response at which energy flowing through the system begins to be attenuated (reflected or reduced) rather than passing through. The cutoff frequency or corner frequency in electronics is the frequency either above … Read more

Nominal Voltage: What is it? (vs. Operating & Rated Voltage)

What is Nominal Voltage? Nominal voltage is a value assigned to a circuit or system to designate its voltage class conveniently(e.g. 120/240 volts, 300 volts, 480Y/277 volts). The actual voltage at which a circuit operates can vary from the nominal voltage within a range that permits satisfactory operation of equipment. The word “nominal” means “named”. … Read more