Active Low Pass Filter: Design and Applications

What is Active Filter? The active filter is a type of filter that includes one or more active circuit components such as a transistor or operational amplifier (Op-Amp). They derive their energy from an external source of energy and use it to increase or amplify the signal output. Operational amplifiers can also be used to … Read more

Programmable Logic Controllers (PLCs): Basics, Types & Applications

What is a PLC? PLC stands for “Programmable Logic Controller”. A PLC is a computer specially designed to operate reliably under harsh industrial environments – such as extreme temperatures, wet, dry, and/or dusty conditions. It is used to automate industrial processes such as a manufacturing plant’s assembly line, an ore processing plant, or a wastewater … Read more

SCADA System: What is it? (Supervisory Control and Data Acquisition)

What is SCADA SCADA stands for “Supervisory Control and Data Acquisition”. SCADA is a type of process control system architecture that uses computers, networked data communications and graphical Human Machine Interfaces (HMIs) to enable a high-level process supervisory management and control. SCADA systems communicate with other devices such as programmable logic controllers (PLCs) and PID … Read more

Types of Defibrillators

Two types of defibrillators are showing below. AC defibrillators DC defibrillators AC Defibrillators AC defibrillator is the oldest and simplest type. The construction of AC defibrillator is such that appropriate values are available for internal and external defibrillation. In AC defibrillation, a shock of 50 Hz a.c frequency is applied to the chest for a … Read more

Biological Amplifiers and Types of Biological Amplifiers

Why is Bio Amplifier Required? Generally, biological/bioelectric signals have low amplitude and low frequency. Therefore, to increase the amplitude level of biosignals amplifiers are designed. The outputs from these amplifiers are used for further analysis and they appear as ECG, EMG, or any bioelectric waveforms. Such amplifiers are defined as Bio Amplifiers or Biomedical Amplifiers. … Read more

Bio Electrode Potential

Electrode Potential The human body generates electrical signals on the body surface. Recording electrodes picks the bioelectric events produced in the body. The picked up signals are given to the amplifier and then to display. Electrodes transfer ionic conduction in the tissue to electronic conduction to measure the values. Generally, there are two types of … Read more

Surface Electrodes

Surface electrode measures the potential available from the surface of the skin. It senses the signal from heart, brain and nerves. Larger surface electrodes sense the ECG signals. Smaller surface electrodes sense the EMG and EEG signals. The types of surface electrodes are as follows. Metal Plate Electrodes ECG measurement technique uses either rectangular or … Read more

Cardiac Output Measurement

Cardiac output is termed as the measurement of blood that the heart delivers per minute to the aorta. For a normal human being cardiac output is in the range of 4 – 6 liters per minute. During each heart beat blood pumps around 70 to 100 ml of blood. Blood is pumped from the right … Read more

Application of Transducers in Biomedical Instrumentation

Application of Piezoelectric Transducer Crystal microphone measures and records the Heart sounds (Phonocardiography). The microphone operates in the flat frequency range of 20 to 1000 Hz, which suppresses the breathing sounds and room noise. Sounds from heart chambers are measured with Catheter-tip piezoelectric sensors. A piezoelectric crystal detects the Korotkoff sounds during systolic and diastolic … Read more

Chopper Amplifier for Biomedical Instrumentation

When recording biopotentials noise and drift are the two problems encountered. Noise is due to the recording device and by the patient when they move. Drift is a shift in baseline created due to various thermal effects. A DC amplifier has a shift or sudden peak in the output when the input is zero. Therefore, … Read more