# Voltage Multiplier

**voltage tripler and finally quadrupler**.

## Half-Wave Voltage Doubler

The input wave form, circuit diagram and output waveform is shown in figure 1. Here, all through the positive half cycle, the forward biased D_{1}diode conducts and diode D

_{2}will be in off condition. In this time, the capacitor (C

_{1}) charges to V

_{Smax}(peak 2

^{o}voltage). All through the negative half cycle, the forward biased D

_{2}diode conducts and D

_{1}diode will be in off condition. In this time C

_{2}will start charging. Throughout the next positive half cycle, D

_{2}is at reversed biased condition (open circuited). In this time C

_{2}capacitor gets discharged through the load and thus voltage across this capacitor gets dropped.

But when there is no load across this capacitor, then both the capacitors will be at charged condition. That is C_{1} is charged to V_{Smax} and C_{2} is charged to 2V_{Smax}. Throughout the negative half cycle the C_{2} gets charged yet again (2V_{Smax}). In the next half cycle, a half wave which is filtered by means of capacitor filter is obtained across the capacitor C_{2}. Here, ripple frequency is same as the signal frequency. The DC output voltage of the order of 3kV can be obtained from this circuit.

## Full Wave Voltage Doubler

The input waveform of**full-wave voltage doubler**is shown below. The circuit diagram and output waveform is shown in figure 3. Here; all through the positive cycle of input voltage, the diode D

_{1}will be in forward biased condition and capacitor C

_{1}will gets charged to V

_{Smax}(peak voltage). At this time, D

_{2}will be in reverse biased condition. All through the negative cycle of input voltage, the D

_{2}diode will be in forward biased condition and the capacitor C

_{2}gets charged. If the load is not connected across the output terminals, the total voltages of both the capacitors are obtained as the output voltage. If some load is connected across the output terminals, then output voltage . We can see that, both the half-wave and full-wave voltage doubler will give 2V

_{S MAX}as output. It does not require any centre-tapped transformer. The peak inverse voltage rating of diodes will be equal to 2V

_{S MAX}.

When compared to half wave voltage doubler, the full-wave voltage doubler can simply filter high frequency ripples and output ripple frequency will be equal to twice the supply frequency. But the problem in full-wave voltage doubler is that; in between the input and output, the common ground is absent.

## Voltage Tripler and Quadrupler

Using the method of extension of**half-wave voltage doubler**circuit, any

**voltage multipliers**(Tripler, Quadrupler etc) can be created. When both the capacitor leakage and load are small, we can achieve tremendously high DC voltages by means of these circuits that include several sections to step-up (increase) the DC voltage. Here; all through the first positive and negative half cycle is same as that of half-wave voltage doubler. Throughout the next positive half cycle, D

_{1}& D

_{3}conducts and C

_{3}charges to 2V

_{Smax}. Throughout the next negative half cycle, D

_{2}& D

_{4}conducts and C

_{4}charges to 2V

_{Smax}. When more diodes and capacitors are added, every capacitor will get charged to 2V

_{Smax}. At the output; odd multiples of V

_{Smax}can be attained, if measured from the top of transformer 2

^{o}winding and even multiples of V

_{Smax}can be attained, if measured from bottom of 2

^{o}winding of transformer.

### Application of Voltage Multiplier

- Cathode ray tubes.
- Cathode ray tubes in oscilloscope, Television receivers, Computer display.
- X-Ray systems
- Lasers
- Ion pumps
- Copy machines
- Electrostatic systems
- Photomultiplier tubes
- Travelling wave tubes (TWT)
- And several other devices which involves low current and high voltage applications.

**Comments/Feedbacks**

Closely Related Articles Voltage or Electric Potential DifferenceVoltage in SeriesVoltage in ParallelVoltage Drop CalculationVoltage DividerVoltage DoublerVoltage RegulatorVoltage FollowerVoltage Regulator 7805Voltage to Current ConverterMore Related Articles Electric Current and Theory of Electricity | Heating and Magnetic EffectNature of ElectricityDrift Velocity Drift Current and Electron MobilityElectric Current and Voltage Division RuleRMS or Root Mean Square Value of AC SignalWorking Principle of a CapacitorQuality Factor of Inductor and CapacitorTransient Behavior of CapacitorCylindrical CapacitorSpherical CapacitorCapacitors in Series and ParallelHow to Test Capacitors?Electrical Conductance Conductivity of Metal Semiconductor and Insulator | Band TheoryWhat is Electrical Resistance?Resistivity and Laws of ResistanceProperties of Electric ConductorTemperature Coefficient of ResistanceResistance Variation with TemperatureSeries ResistanceActive and Passive Elements of Electrical CircuitElectrical DC Series and Parallel CircuitOhm's Law | Equation Formula and Limitation of Ohm's LawKirchhoff Current Law and Kirchhoff Voltage LawSingle and Multi Mesh AnalysisSuperposition TheoremThevenin Theorem and Thevenin Equivalent Voltage and ResistanceNorton Theorem | Norton Equivalent Current and ResistanceReciprocity TheoremNodal Analysis in Electric CircuitsMaximum Power Transfer TheoremDelta - Star transformation | Star - Delta TransformationMagnetic FieldMagnetic FluxMagnetic PermeabilityHysteresis LoopMagnetic Field and Magnetic Circuit | Magnetic MaterialsMagnetic SaturationEnergy Stored in a Magnetic FieldStatic Electric Field | Electrostatic Induction A Current Carrying Conductor Within A Magnetic FieldMagnetic SusceptibilityHard Magnetic MaterialsSoft Magnetic MaterialsMagnetic Circuit with Air GapElectric ChargeCoulombs Law | Explanation Statement Formulas Principle Limitation of Coulomb’s LawElectric Lines of ForceWhat is Electric Field?Electric Field Strength or Electric Field IntensityWhat is Flux? Types of Flux?Electric FluxElectric PotentialCapacitor and Capacitance | Types of CapacitorsEnergy Stored in CapacitorCharging a CapacitorDischarging a CapacitorFourier Series and Fourier TransformTrigonometric Fourier SeriesAnalysis of Exponential Fourier SeriesParity GeneratorElectric Circuit and Electrical Circuit ElementsSeries Parallel Battery CellsRL Series CircuitWhat is Inductor and Inductance | Theory of InductorRLC CircuitThree Phase Circuit | Star and Delta SystemRL Parallel CircuitRL Circuit Transfer Function Time Constant RL Circuit as FilterConstruction of AC Circuits and Working of AC CircuitsSeries RLC CircuitParallel RLC CircuitResistances in Series and Resistances in ParallelResonance in Series RLC CircuitPlanar and Non Planar Graphs of CircuitClipping CircuitMutual InductanceSelf InductanceSI System of UnitsElectrical International SymbolElectric Power Single and Three Phase Power Active Reactive ApparentVector Algebra | Vector DiagramRelationship of Line and Phase Voltages and Currents in a Star Connected SystemVector Diagram | Three Phase Vector DiagramTypes of Resistor Carbon Composition and Wire Wound ResistorVaristor Metal Oxide Varistor is Nonlinear ResistorCarbon Composition ResistorWire Wound ResistorVariable Resistors | Defination, Uses and Types of Variable ResistorsLight Dependent Resistor | LDR and Working Principle of LDRSource of Electrical EnergyVoltage SourceIdeal Dependent Independent Voltage Current SourceNew Articles Collecting Oil Sample from Oil Immersed Electrical EquipmentCauses of Insulating Oil DeteriorationAcidity Test of Transformer Insulating OilMagnetic FluxRing Counter