Nature of Electricity

Nature of Electricity and Concept of Electricity

Electricity is the most common form of energy. Electricity is used for various applications such as lighting, transportation, cooking, communication, production of various goods in factories and much more. None of us exactly know that what is electricity. The concept of electricity and theories behind it, can be developed by observing its different behaviors. For observing nature of electricity, it is necessary to study the structure of matters. Every substance in this universe is made up of extremely small particles known as molecules. The molecule is the smallest particle of a substance into which all the identities of that substance are present. The molecules are made up of further smaller particles known as atoms. An atom is the smallest particle of an element that can exist.

There are two types of substances. The substance, that's molecules are made of similar atoms is known as an element. The matter whose molecules consisting dissimilar atoms, is called a compound. The concept of electricity can be achieved from the atomic structures of substances.

Structure of Atom

An atom consists of one central nucleus. The nucleus is made up of positive protons and charge less neutrons. This nucleus is surrounded by numbers of orbital electrons. Each electron has a negative charge of - 1.602 × 10 - 19 Coulomb and each proton in the nucleus has a positive charge of + 1.602 × 10 - 19 Coulomb. Because of the opposite charge there is some attraction force between the nucleus and orbiting electrons. Electrons have relatively negligible mass compared to the mass of the nucleus. The mass of each proton and neutrons is 1840 times the mass of an electron. As the modulus value of each electron and each proton are same, the number of electrons is equal to the number protons in an electrically neutral atom. An atom becomes positively charged ion when it loses electrons and similarly an atom becomes negative ion when it gains electrons. Nature of Electricity Atoms may have loosely bonded electrons in their outermost orbits. These electrons require a very small amount of energy to detach themselves from their parent atoms. These electrons are referred as free electrons which move randomly inside the substance and transferred from one atom to another. Any piece of substances which as a whole contains an unequal number of electrons and protons is referred as electrically charged. When there is more number of electrons compared to its protons, the substance is said to be negatively charged and when there is more number of protons compared to electrons, the substance is said to be positively charged.
The basic nature of electricity is, whenever a negatively charged body is connected to a positively charged body by means of a conductor, the excess electrons of negative body starts flowing towards the positive body to compensate the lack of electrons in that positive body. free electrons Hope you got the very basic concept of electricity from the above explanation. There are some materials which have plenty of free electrons at normal room temperature. Very well known examples of this type of materials are, silver, copper, aluminium, zinc etc. The movement of these free electrons can easily be directed to a particular direction if the electrical potential difference is applied across the piece of these materials. Because of plenty of free electrons these materials have good electrical conductivity. These materials are referred as good conductor. The drift of electrons in a conductor in one direction is known as the current. Actually electrons flow from lower potential (-Ve) to higher potential (+Ve) but the general conventional direction of current has been considered as the highest potential point to lower potential point, so the conventional direction of current has been just opposite of the direction of flow of electrons. In non-metallic materials, such as glass, mica, slate, porcelain, the outermost orbit is completed and there is almost no chance of loosing electrons from its outermost shell. Hence there is hardly any free electron present in this type of material.

Hence, these materials cannot conduct electricity in other words electrical conductivity of these materials is very poor. Such material are known as non - conductor or electrical insulator. The nature of electricity is to flow through a conductor while an electrical potential difference applied across it, but not to flow through insulator even high electrical potential difference applied across them.

Closely Related Articles Electric Current and Theory of Electricity | Heating and Magnetic EffectDrift Velocity Drift Current and Electron MobilityElectric Current and Voltage Division RuleRMS or Root Mean Square Value of AC SignalMore Related Articles Questions on CapacitorQuestions on Magnet FieldVoltage or Electric Potential DifferenceVoltage DividerSafety Rules for Medium Voltage InstallationVoltage MultiplierVoltage Drop CalculationVoltage DoublerVoltage RegulatorVoltage SourceVoltage FollowerVoltage Regulator 7805Voltage in SeriesVoltage in ParallelElectrical Conductance Conductivity of Metal Semiconductor and Insulator | Band TheoryProperties of Electric ConductorElectrical Resistance and Laws of ResistanceSeries ResistanceMeasurement of ResistanceElectric Circuit and Electrical Circuit ElementsSeries Parallel Battery CellsElectrical DC Series and Parallel CircuitRL Series CircuitRLC CircuitThree Phase Circuit | Star and Delta SystemRL Parallel CircuitRL Circuit Transfer Function Time Constant RL Circuit as FilterConstruction of AC Circuits and Working of AC CircuitsSeries RLC CircuitParallel RLC CircuitResistances in Series and Resistances in ParallelResonance in Series RLC CircuitPlanar and Non Planar Graphs of CircuitClipping CircuitWhat is Electric Field?Static Electric Field | Electrostatic Induction | Electric Field StrengthWhat is Flux? Types of Flux?Magnetic PermeabilityMagnetic Field and Magnetic Circuit | Magnetic MaterialsMagnetic SaturationEnergy Stored in a Magnetic FieldHysteresis LoopA Current Carrying Conductor Within A Magnetic FieldMagnetic SusceptibilityHard Magnetic MaterialsSoft Magnetic MaterialsMagnetic Circuit with Air GapElectrical International SymbolTypes of resistor Carbon Composition and Wire Wound ResistorVaristor Metal Oxide Varistor is nonlinear ResistorCarbon Composition ResistorWire Wound ResistorVariable Resistors | Defination, Uses and Types of Variable ResistorsLight Dependent Resistor | LDR and Working Principle of LDRWhat is Capacitor and Capacitance? Types of CapacitorsWorking Principle of a CapacitorEnergy Stored in CapacitorQuality Factor of Inductor and CapacitorTransient Behavior of CapacitorCylindrical CapacitorSpherical CapacitorCapacitors in Series and ParallelTesting of Capacitor BankHow to Test Capacitors?Join us as Electrical Content Writer Questions on BatteryQuestions on Electrical EarthingSI System of UnitsAnalysis of Exponential Fourier SeriesWhat is Inductor and Inductance | Theory of InductorApplications of Shift RegistersMutual InductanceSelf InductanceTrigonometric Fourier SeriesFourier Series and Fourier TransformQuestions on Alternating CurrentElectric HeatingQuestions on InsulatorQuestions on ElectrolysisQuestions on Electrical FuseQuestions on Current and Voltage SourceQuestions on Magnetic MaterialsElectric Power Single and Three Phase Power Active Reactive ApparentVector Algebra | Vector DiagramRelationship of Line and Phase Voltages and Currents in a Star Connected SystemVector Diagram | Three Phase Vector DiagramSource of Electrical EnergyEarn with usNew Articles Voltage in ParallelVoltage in SeriesVoltage Regulator 7805How to Use a Digital Multimeter?Vector Impedance MeterVoltage Follower