Series and Parallel Inductors
Measurement of Loss
Insulation Resistance Measurement
Ampere's Circuital LawClosely Related Articles
Types of Insulator
Properties of Insulation
Testing of Power Cable
Insulation Thickness Test
Types of Capacitor Bank
Testing of Capacitor Bank
Rating of Capacitor Bank
Switchable Capacitor Bank
Location of Capacitor Bank
Resistance of Earth
Types of Reactor
Applications of Reactors
Construction of Shunt Reactor
Tests of Shunt Reactor
Measurement of Reactance
Measurement of Resistance
Measurement of Loss
Transmission Tower Foundation
Towers in Different Soils
Advantages of Three Phase System
Inductance of Single Conductor
Inductance in Three Phase Line
Power System Stability
Load Flow Analysis
Flexible AC Transmission Systems
Tariff of Electricity
Inductance of Single Phase System
Load Flow and Y Bus
Equal Area Criterion
Steady State Stability
Short Transmission Line
Medium Transmission Line
Long Transmission Line
Performance of Transmission Line
Surge Impedance Loading
Advantages of Bundled Conductors
Insulation Coordination in Power System
Insulators in some points are easily replaceable and repairable compared to other. Insulation in some points are not so easily replaceable and repairable and the replacement and repairing may be highly expensive and require long interruption of power. Moreover failure of insulator at these points may causes bigger part of electrical network to be out of service. So, it is desirable that in situation of insulator failure, only the easily replaceable and repairable insulator fails. The overall aim of insulation coordination is to reduce to an economically and operationally acceptable level the cost and disturbance caused by insulation failure. In insulation coordination method, the insulation of the various parts of the system must be so graded that flash over if occurs it must be at intended points. For proper understanding the insulation coordination we have to understand first, some basic terminologies of the electrical power system. Let us have a discussion.
Nominal System VoltageNominal System Voltage is the phase to phase voltage of the system for which the system is normally designed. Such as 11 KV, 33 KV, 132 KV, 220 KV, 400 KV systems.
Maximum System VoltageMaximum System Voltage is the maximum allowable power frequency voltage which can occurs may be for long time during no load or low load condition of the power system. It is also measured in phase to phase manner. List of different nominal system voltage and their corresponding maximum system voltage is given below for reference,
|Nominal System Voltage in KV||11||33||66||132||220||400|
|Maximum System Voltage in KV||12||36||72.5||145||245||420|
Factor of EarthingThis is the ratio of the highest rms phase to earth power frequency voltage on a sound phase during an earth fault to the rms phase to phase power frequency voltage which would be obtained at the selected location without the fault. This ratio characterizes, in general terms, the earthing conditions of a system as viewed from the selected fault location.
Effectively Earthed SystemA system is said to be effectively earthed if the factor of earthing does not exceed 80 % and non-effectively earthed if it does. Factor of earthing is 100 % for an isolated neutral system, while it is 57.7 % (1/√3 = 0.577) for solidly earthed system.
Insulation LevelEvery electrical equipment has to undergo different abnormal transient over voltage situation in different times during its total service life period. The equipment may have to withstand lightning impulses, switching impulses and/or short duration power frequency over voltages. Depending upon the maximum level of impulse voltages and short duration power frequency over voltages that one power system component can withstand, the insulation level of high voltage power system is determined. During determining the insulation level of the system rated less than 300 KV, the lightning impulse withstand voltage and short duration power frequency withstand voltage are considered. For equipment rated more or equal 300 KV, switching impulse withstand voltage and short duration power frequency withstand voltage are considered.
Lightning Impulse VoltageThe system disturbances occur due to natural lightning, can be represented by three different basic wave shapes. If a lightning impulse voltage travels some distance along the transmission line before it reaches to a insulator its wave shaped approaches to full wave, and this wave is referred as 1.2/50 wave. If during travelling, the lightning disturbance wave causes flash over across an insulator the shape of the wave becomes chopped wave. If a lightning stroke hits directly on the insulator then the lightning impulse voltage may rise steep until it is relieved by flash over, causing sudden, very steep collapse in voltage. These three waves are quite different in duration and in shapes.
Switching ImpulseDuring switching operation there may be uni-polar voltage appears in the system. The wave form of which may be periodically damped or oscillating one. Switching impulse wave form has steep front and long damped oscillating tale.
Short Duration Power Frequency Withstand VoltageShort duration power frequency withstand voltage is the prescribed rms value of sinusoidal power frequency voltage that the electrical equipment shall withstand for a specific period of time normally 60 seconds.
Protection Level Voltage of Protective DeviceOver voltage protective device like surge arrestors or lightning arrestors are designed to withstand a certain level of transient over voltage beyond which the devices drain the surge energy to the ground and therefore maintain the level of transient over voltage up to a specific level. Thus transient over voltage can not exceed that level. The protection level of over voltage protective device is the highest peak voltage value which should not be exceeded at the terminals of over voltage protective device when switching impulses and lightening impulses are applied.
Now let us discuss the insulation coordination methods one by one-
Using Shield Wire or Earth WireLightning surge in over head transmission line may be caused due to direct hits of lightening strokes. It can be protected by providing a shield wire or earth wire at a suitable height from the top conductor of transmission line. If the conducting shield wire is properly connected to transmission tower body and the tower is properly earthed then direct lightning strokes can be avoided from all the conductors come under the protective angle of earth wire. Over head earth wire or ground wire or shield wire is also used to over the electrical substation to protect different electrical equipment from lightning strokes.
Conventional Method of Insulation CoordinationAs we discussed above that a component of electrical power system may suffer from different level of transient voltage stresses, switching impulse voltage and lightning impulse voltage. The maximum amplitude of transient over voltages reach the components, can be limited by using protecting device like lightning arrestors in the system. If we maintain the insulation level of all the power system component above the protection level of protective device, then ideally there will be no chance of breakdown of insulation of any component. Since the transient over voltage reaches at the insulation after crossing the surge protective devices will have amplitude equals to protection level voltage and protection level voltage impulse insulation level of the components. Generally, the impulse insulation level is established at 15 to 25 % above the protective level voltage of protective devices.
Statistical Methods of Insulation CoordinationAt higher transmission voltages, the length of the insulator strings and the clearance in air do not increase linearly with voltage but approximately to V1.6. The required number of insulator disc in suspension string for different over voltages is shown below. It is seen that increase in the number of disc is only slight for 220 KV system, with the increase in the over voltage factor from 2 to 3.5 but that there is a rapid increase in the 750 kV system. Thus, while it may be economically feasible to protect the lower voltage lines up to an over voltage factor of 3.5(say), it is definitely not economically feasible to have an over voltage factor of more than about 2 to 2.5 on the higher voltage lines. In the higher voltage systems, it is the switching over voltages that is predominant. However, these may be controlled by proper design of switching devices.
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