Electric Charge

Every matter in this universe is made of atoms. The atoms are electrically neutral. This is because, each atom has equal number of protons and electrons. Protons have positive charge. In an atom, protons sit in the central nucleus along with electrically neutral neutrons. The protons are strongly bounded in the nucleus. So, protons cannot be detached from the nucleus by any normal process. Each electron revolves round the nucleus in definite orbit in the atom. Electrons have negative charge. The quantity of electric charge of an electron is exactly equal to that of a proton but in opposite in nature. The electrons are negative and protons are positive. So, a piece of matter normally electrically neutral, since it is made of electrically neutral atoms.

The electrons are also bounded in the atoms but not all. Few of the electrons which are farthest from the nucleus may be detached by any means. If some of these detachable electrons of neutral atoms of a body, are removed, there will be a deficit of electrons in the body. After, removal of some of the detachable electrons from the neutral body, the total number of protons in the body becomes more than total number of electrons in the body. As a result the body will become positively charged.
Not only a body can give away electrons, it may also absorb some extra electrons, supplied from outside. In that case, the body becomes negatively charged.
So, deficit or excess of electrons in a body of matter is called electric charge.
Charge of an electron is very small and it is equal to . So, total number of electrons have electric charge of 1 Coulomb. So, if a body deficits number of excess electrons, the body will be of 1 coulomb negative electric charge. number of electrons, the body will be of 1 coulomb positive electric charge. On the other hand, if a body has number of excess electrons, the body will be of 1 coulomb negative electric charge.

Charged body is an example of static electricity. This is because, the electric charge is confined in the body itself. Here, the charge is not in motion.
But when the electric charge is in motion, it causes electric current. Electric charge has the potential of doing work. That means it has potential to either attract opposite nature of charge or repulse same nature of charge. A charge is the result of separating electrons and protons.


Closely Related Articles Coulombs Law | Explanation Statement Formulas Principle Limitation of Coulomb’s LawElectric Lines of ForceWhat is Electric Field?Electric Field Strength or Electric Field IntensityWhat is Flux? Types of Flux?Electric FluxElectric PotentialCapacitor and Capacitance | Types of CapacitorsEnergy Stored in CapacitorCharging a CapacitorDischarging a CapacitorMore Related Articles Electric Current and Theory of Electricity | Heating and Magnetic EffectNature of ElectricityDrift Velocity Drift Current and Electron MobilityElectric Current and Voltage Division RuleRMS or Root Mean Square Value of AC SignalWorking Principle of a CapacitorQuality Factor of Inductor and CapacitorTransient Behavior of CapacitorCylindrical CapacitorSpherical CapacitorCapacitors in Series and ParallelHow to Test Capacitors?Electrical Conductance Conductivity of Metal Semiconductor and Insulator | Band TheoryWhat is Electrical Resistance?Resistivity and Laws of ResistanceProperties of Electric ConductorTemperature Coefficient of ResistanceResistance Variation with TemperatureSeries ResistanceActive and Passive Elements of Electrical CircuitElectrical DC Series and Parallel CircuitOhm's Law | Equation Formula and Limitation of Ohm's LawKirchhoff Current Law and Kirchhoff Voltage LawSingle and Multi Mesh AnalysisSuperposition TheoremThevenin Theorem and Thevenin Equivalent Voltage and ResistanceNorton Theorem | Norton Equivalent Current and ResistanceReciprocity TheoremNodal Analysis in Electric CircuitsMaximum Power Transfer TheoremDelta - Star transformation | Star - Delta TransformationMagnetic FieldMagnetic FluxMagnetic PermeabilityHysteresis LoopMagnetic Field and Magnetic Circuit | Magnetic MaterialsMagnetic SaturationEnergy Stored in a Magnetic FieldStatic Electric Field | Electrostatic Induction A Current Carrying Conductor Within A Magnetic FieldMagnetic SusceptibilityHard Magnetic MaterialsSoft Magnetic MaterialsMagnetic Circuit with Air GapFourier Series and Fourier TransformTrigonometric Fourier SeriesAnalysis of Exponential Fourier SeriesParity GeneratorElectric Circuit and Electrical Circuit ElementsSeries Parallel Battery CellsRL Series CircuitWhat is Inductor and Inductance | Theory of InductorRLC CircuitThree Phase Circuit | Star and Delta SystemRL Parallel CircuitRL Circuit Transfer Function Time Constant RL Circuit as FilterConstruction of AC Circuits and Working of AC CircuitsSeries RLC CircuitParallel RLC CircuitResistances in Series and Resistances in ParallelResonance in Series RLC CircuitPlanar and Non Planar Graphs of CircuitClipping CircuitMutual InductanceSelf InductanceSI System of UnitsElectrical International SymbolElectric Power Single and Three Phase Power Active Reactive ApparentVector Algebra | Vector DiagramRelationship of Line and Phase Voltages and Currents in a Star Connected SystemVector Diagram | Three Phase Vector DiagramTypes of Resistor Carbon Composition and Wire Wound ResistorVaristor Metal Oxide Varistor is Nonlinear ResistorCarbon Composition ResistorWire Wound ResistorVariable Resistors | Defination, Uses and Types of Variable ResistorsLight Dependent Resistor | LDR and Working Principle of LDRSource of Electrical EnergyVoltage SourceIdeal Dependent Independent Voltage Current SourceVoltage or Electric Potential DifferenceVoltage in SeriesVoltage in ParallelVoltage Drop CalculationVoltage DividerVoltage MultiplierVoltage DoublerVoltage RegulatorVoltage FollowerVoltage Regulator 7805Voltage to Current ConverterNew Articles Principle of Water Content Test of Insulating OilCollecting Oil Sample from Oil Immersed Electrical EquipmentCauses of Insulating Oil DeteriorationAcidity Test of Transformer Insulating OilMagnetic Flux