Diode Bridge Rectifier

Most of the apparatus we use are AC devices. They require AC power for their operation. We do not have much devices which works on DC supplies. But with the advancement of electronics the DC is gaining its importance as these this devices give an efficient method for AC to DC conversion. Earlier, we used synchronous converter but the conversion process is quite lossy and inefficient. But now electronic devices such as diodes are used for conversion AC to DC. We require DC supply for DC devices Such as computer, battery charger, Etc. All this is possible with the advancement of semiconductor technology.
Now rectifier is a process of conversion to DC to AC. It is the second stage of conversion process. It converts the AC voltage waveform to a rectified voltage.

Now, we have other types of rectification methods that can also be used. So, we may think why should we need this method if other methods are available? The answer to this question is that it provides certain advantages such as no center tap transformer need, high transformer utilization factor, so for the advantages it provides compared to other methods, it is used.

Principle of Diode Bridge Rectifier

Here we have four diodes connected as shown in the fig. A transformer is used in order to step down the voltage to a desired level at the output a load is connected which consumes power fig:- Bridge rectifier circuit and waveform (rectified). When the upper end of the secondary of transformer is positive, the diode D1 and D3 are forward biased and current flows through them. Current enters through D1 and leaves D3 to the other terminal similarly, during another half cycle, D2 and D4 are forward biased, current enters through D2 and leaves through D4 to the source.

Here, Capacitor is used as a filter which filters out ripple frequencies and provides a DC voltage with less ripple frequency. To get a regulated DC voltage at the output we have to use a voltage regulator after filtering operation. diode bridge rectifier with capacitor as a filter

Mathematical Analysis of Diode Bridge Rectifier

Peak current through the load if diode has forward resistance of RF then Here we get twice the forward resistance. Assuming all the diodes have same forward resistance, two diodes are used for one half cycle twice the forward resistance will come in the expression.
Output current Where,
Idc is the DC value of current flowing through the load and Im is the peak value of AC current.
DC output voltage Where,
Vdc is the output DC voltage, Idc is the DC current flowing in the circuit and R is the load resistance connected in the circuit.
RMS output current RMS output voltage Form factor and crest factor
Form factor, Where, Vavg is the average or the DC voltage.
Output Frequency Where, fout is the output frequency and fin is the input or supply frequency.
Rectification Efficiency Ripple Factor TUF Or Transformer Utilization Factor

Advantages of Diode Bridge Rectifier

  1. Double rectification efficiency then half wave rectifier.
  2. Low ripple voltage and higher frequency, so simple filter circuits required.
  3. Higher TUF then centre tapped rectifier.
  4. No centre tap transformer is required.
  5. PIV or Peak Inverse Voltage is one half that of centre tap.

Disadvantages of Diode Bridge Rectifier

Four diodes required hence the cost of the rectifier will be more.


Closely Related Articles Vacuum Diode History Working Principle and Types of Vacuum DiodePN Junction Diode and its CharacteristicsDiode | Working and Types of DiodeDiode CharacteristicsHalf Wave Diode RectifierFull Wave Diode RectifierWhat is Zener Diode?Application of Zener DiodeLED or Light Emitting DiodePIN Photodiode | Avalanche PhotodiodeTunnel Diode and its ApplicationsGUNN DiodeVaractor DiodeLaser DiodeSchottky DiodePower DiodesDiode ResistanceDiode Current EquationIdeal DiodeReverse Recovery Time of DiodeDiode TestingMore Related Articles Amplifier Gain | Decibel or dB GainIntegrated Circuits | Types of ICRegulated Power SupplyLaser | Types and Components of LaserWork FunctionMobility of Charge CarrierWhat are Photo Electrons? Electron volt or eVEnergy Quanta | Development of Quantum Physics Schottky EffectHeisenberg Uncertainty PrincipleSchrodinger Wave Equation and Wave FunctionCyclotron Basic Construction and Working PrincipleSinusoidal Wave SignalCommon Emitter AmplifierRC Coupled AmplifierDifferential AmplifierWave Particle Duality PrincipleSpace ChargeMOSFET | Working Principle of p-channel n-channel MOSFETMOSFET CircuitsMOS Capacitor | MOS Capacitance C V CurveApplications of MOSFETMOSFET as a SwitchMOSFET CharacteristicsPower MOSFETHalf Wave RectifiersFull Wave RectifiersBridge RectifiersClamping CircuitTheory of SemiconductorIntrinsic SemiconductorExtrinsic SemiconductorsEnergy Bands of SiliconDonor and Acceptor Impurities in Semiconductor Conductivity of SemiconductorCurrent Density in Metal and Semiconductor Intrinsic Silicon and Extrinsic SiliconP Type SemiconductorN Type SemiconductorP N Junction Theory Behind P N JunctionForward and Reverse Bias of P N JunctionZener BreakdownAvalanche BreakdownHall Effect Applications of Hall EffectGallium Arsenide SemiconductorSilicon SemiconductorTypes of TransistorsBipolar Junction Transistor or BJTBiasing of Bipolar Junction Transistor or BJTTransistor BiasingTransistor CharacteristicsCurrent Components in a TransistorTransistor Manufacturing TechniquesApplications of Bipolar Junction Transistor or BJT | History of BJTTransistor as a SwitchTransistor as an AmplifierJFET or Junction Field Effect Transistorn-channel JFET and p-channel JFETApplications of Field Effect TransistorDIAC Construction Operation and Applications of DIACTRIAC Construction Operation and Applications of TRIACPhototransistorNew Articles Trees and Cotrees of Electric NetworkDifferentiatorIntegratorPhase Synchronizing Device or Controlled Switching DeviceDigital to Analog Converter or DACDifference Amplifier