Chemical Properties of Engineering Materials
Being an Engineer it is important to have the knowledge of chemical properties of engineering materials. Because most the engineering materials come into contact with other materials and react chemically to each other. Due to this chemical reaction they may suffer from chemical deterioration. Some of the chemical properties of engineering materials are listed below –
- Chemical composition
- Atomic bonding
- Corrosion resistance
- Acidity or Alkalinity
Chemical CompositionThe chemical composition of engineering material indicates the elements which are combined together to form that material. Chemical composition of a material effects the properties of engineering materials very much. The strength, hardness, ductility, brittleness, corrosion resistance, weldability etc. depends on chemical composition of materials. Hence, we should also have the knowledge of chemical composition of engineering materials. For Example the Chemical compositions of some materials are listed below-
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|Sl. No.||Material||Chemical Composition|
|1.||Steel||Fe, Cr, Ni|
|2.||Brass||Cu = 90%, Ni = 10%|
|3.||Bronze||90% Cu, 10% Ni|
|4.||Invar||Fe = 64%, Ni = 36%|
|5.||Gun Metal||Cu = 88%, Tin = 10%, Zn = 2%|
|6.||German Silver or Nickel Silver or Electrum||Cu = 50%, Zn = 30%, Ni = 20%|
|7.||Nichrome||Ni = 60%, Cr = 15%, Fe = 25%|
|8.||Phosphor Bronge||Cu = 89 – 95.50% , Tin = 3.50 -10%, P = 1%|
|9.||Manganin||Cu = 84%, Mn = 12%, Ni = 4%|
|10.||Constantan||Cu = 60%, Ni = 40%|
Atomic BondingAtomic bonding represents how atoms are bounded to each other to form the material. Many properties, such as melting point, boiling point, thermal conductivity and electrical conductivity of materials are governed by atomic bonding of materials. Hence, to understand the properties of materials, it is very important to study the atomic bonding of materials. Atomic bonds in materials are of following types,
- Ionic bond – froms by exchanging of valence electrons between atoms.
- Covalent bonds – froms by sharing of electrons between atoms.
- Metallic bonds – found in metals.