ONLINE ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING STUDY SITE

Wind Energy Electricity Generation

Wind Energy

Wind energy simply means kinetic energy of air in motion. Air flown on the earth due to uneven heating of the earth surface by radiant energy from the sun.

We know that the earth surface contains very different types of land and lots of water (approximately earth 71% surface covered by water). The soil of different lands are also different. Sun heats up different portion of the earth in different rates that means, the sun heat is not uniformly distributed over the earth surface. Due to difference in temperatures at different portions of the earth there is a flow of air. That means due to nonuniform distribution of heat on the earth surface there are convection currents in the atmosphere. wind energy Formation of wind can be clearly visible at ocean bank where land and huge water meet. During day time, the air above the land becomes hotter, more quickly than the air above the water. The warm air above the land expands, becomes less dense and hence lighter. The air above the water becomes hot less quickly then that on the land hence air above the water remains heavier, denser compared to the air above the land. The hotter air above the land gets higher due to its less density. As soon as this air gets high, cooler air over the water flows in to take the vacant place and consequently there is a wind. This is how wind energy forms in ocean bank during day time. Again during night, the land radiates heat more rapidly than water. Hence, land portion becomes cooler more quickly than water. Because of that the air above the land becomes cooler than air above the water. Hence, at night the hotter air above the water gets high because of lesser density. This vacant space will be occupied by cooler and heavier air from land portion. Hence there will be again a wind but in reverse direction compared to day time.

Again, the atmosphere near the equator becomes hotter than the atmosphere nearer to the north and south poles. Because of that there are always winds nearer to the equator. We call the kinetic energy available due to flow of as wind energy and we can be efficiently utilize this energy for generating electricity. wind energy

Wind Energy Electricity Generation System

Wind is clean source of energy. It has no effect of greenhouse on the atmosphere. It is substitute of fossil fuels such as coal, petroleum and natural gas etc. Although, coal, petroleum and natural gas etc are primary source of fuel for producing electricity but availability of such fossil fuel is limited. Globally, 67% of electricity generated from fossil fuels, 13% from nuclear energy and rest of 20% from renewable energy source such as hydro energy, solar energy, wind energy, tidal energy etc. So we see how much the world depends on fossil fuel for producing electricity and that is why we focus on wind and other renewable energy sources to generate electricity to overcome the dependence on fossil fuels. Running cost for producing electricity with wind energy is quite low. Once the turbines are installed and there is no much maintenance required for long time. Wind energy electricity generation system takes some land for installation but most of the land they are on can be still farmed or used to crop animals. So land is not a big issue for wind turbine generating system. In most of the cases, wind plant is installed at the good height to obtain sufficient wind to produce electricity. It is now fastest growing electricity resource in the world.

One single wind turbine may not be able to produce desired level of electricity, hence, numbers wind turbines are connected together to obtain desire output. This assembly of wind turbines together is called wind farm. We must choose the place for constructing wind farm where the wind speed is sufficient to move the blade of turbine. When the wind flows through the blades of turbine, the turbine rotates for running a generator to produce electricity. This electricity flows down through the cable attached to turbine tower. This cable is also interconnected with cables from other wind turbines in the wind farm.

Hence, electricity from all wind turbines comes to a common node from where it is taken for further ends. After all this electricity is used directly for domestic or industrial load or is drawn by any grid to fulfill the requirement of electricity. This was a brief discussion on the basic of wind energy electricity generation.



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