### Electrical and Electronics Articles

Basic Electrical

Basic Current

DC Circuit

Active & Passive Elements

DC Circuit

Ohm's Law

Kirchhoff Laws

Mesh Analysis

Superposition Theorem

Thevenin Theorem

Norton Theorem

Reciprocity Theorem

Nodal Analysis

Maximum Power Transfer Theorem

Star - Delta Transformation

Electrostatic

Electric Charge

Coulombs Law

Lines of Force

Electric Field

Field Strength

What is Flux

Electric Flux

Electric Potential

Capacitor and Capacitance

Energy Stored in Capacitor

Charging a Capacitor

Discharging a Capacitor

Electromagnetism

Magnetic Field

Magnetic Flux

Magnetic Permeability

Hysteresis Loop

Magnetic Field and Magnetic Circuit | Magnetic Materials

Magnetic Saturation

Energy Stored in a Magnetic Field

Static Electric Field | Electrostatic Induction

A Current Carrying Conductor Within A Magnetic Field

Magnetic Susceptibility

Hard Magnetic Materials

Soft Magnetic Materials

Magnetic Circuit with Air Gap

Voltage

Voltage

Voltage in Series

Voltage in Parallel

Voltage Drop Calculation

Voltage Divider

Voltage Multiplier

Voltage Doubler

Voltage Regulator

Voltage Follower

Voltage Regulator 7805

Voltage to Current Converter

Resistor

Resistor

Varistor

Carbon Composition Resistor

Wire Wound Resistor

Variable Resistor

Light Dependent Resistor

Inductor

Capacitor

Working of Capacitor

Quality Factor

Transient Behavior of Capacitor

Cylindrical Capacitor

Spherical Capacitor

Capacitors in Series and Parallel

Testing of Capacitors

Inductance

Parity Generator

Electric Circuit and Electrical Circuit Elements

Series Parallel Battery Cells

RL Series Circuit

What is Inductor and Inductance | Theory of Inductor

RLC Circuit

Three Phase Circuit | Star and Delta System

RL Parallel Circuit

RL Circuit Transfer Function Time Constant RL Circuit as Filter

Construction of AC Circuits and Working of AC Circuits

Series RLC Circuit

Parallel RLC Circuit

Resistances in Series and Resistances in Parallel

Resonance in Series RLC Circuit

Planar and Non Planar Graphs of Circuit

Clipping Circuit

Source

Phasor Diagram

Electric Power Single and Three Phase Power Active Reactive Apparent

Vector Algebra | Vector Diagram

Relationship of Line and Phase Voltages and Currents in a Star Connected System

Vector Diagram | Three Phase Vector Diagram

Conductance

Conductance

Resistance

Resistivity

Properties of Conductor

Temperature Coefficient

Resistance Variation

Series Resistance

Fourier Series

Fourier Series and Fourier Transform

Trigonometric Fourier Series

Analysis of Exponential Fourier Series

Miscellaneous

Batteries

Battery

Working of Battery

Alkaline Batteries

Voltaic Cell

Battery Charging

Leclanche Cell

Edison Batteries

Aluminum Air Battery

Zinc Carbon Battery

Mercuric Oxide Battery

Magnesium Battery

Binary

Ionization Process and Definition

Principle of Electrolysis of Copper Sulfate Electrolyte

Applications of Electrolysis Electroplating Electroforming Electrorefining

Lead Acid Battery

Working of Lead Acid Battery | Lead Acid Secondary Storage Battery

Construction of Lead Acid Battery

Maintenance of Lead Acid Battery

Circuit Theory

Circuit Theorem

Circuit Theory

Control System

Control Engineering

Control Engineering | Historical Review and Types of Control Engineering

Types of Control Systems | Linear and Non Linear Control System

On Off Control Theory | Controller

Control System | Closed Loop Open Loop Control System

Block Diagrams of Control System

Signal Flow Graph of Control System

Basic Signal Operations

PID Control

Field Oriented Control

Compensation in Control System | Lag lead Compensation

Non Linearities Describing Function Method in Control System | Saturation Backlash Dead Zone

Types of Controllers | Proportional Integral and Derivative Controllers

Nichols Plot

Digital Data of Control System

First Order Control System

Industrial Automation

Laplace

State Space Analysis of Control System

Time Response of Second-Order Control System

Transient State and Steady State Response of Control System

Transfer Functions Examples Part 1

Time Domain Analysis of Control System

Final Value Theorem of Laplace Transform

Initial Value Theorem of Laplace Transform

Transfer Function of Control System

Network Synthesis | Hurwitz Polynomial | Positive Real Functions

Routh Hurwitz Stability Criterion

Root Locus Technique in Control System | Root Locus Plot

Nyquist Plot

Mathematical Modelling of Control System | Mechanical Electrical

Bode Plot Gain Margin and Phase Margin

Laplace Transforms | Table Method Examples History of Laplace Transform

Laplace Transform Examples Part 1

Laplace Transform Examples Part 2

DC Motor

Basic Motor

DC Motor Basic

DC Motor or Direct Current Motor

Speed Regulation of DC Motor

Speed Control of DC Motor

Working or Operating Principle of DC Motor

Torque Equation of DC Motor

Construction of DC Motor | Yoke Poles Armature Field Winding Commutator Brushes of DC Motor

Testing of DC Machine

Swinburne Test of DC Machine

Losses in DC Machine

Ward Leonard Method of Speed Control

Armature Reaction in DC Machine

Commutation in DC Machine or Commutation in DC Generator or Motor

Methods of Improving Commutation

Starting Methods to limit Starting Current and Torque of DC Motor

3 Point Starter | Working Principle and Construction of Three Point Starter

4 Point Starter | Working Principle and Construction of Four Point Starter

DC Motor Types

Types of DC Motor Separately Excited Shunt Series Compound DC Motor

Shunt Wound DC Motor | DC Shunt Motor

Series Wound DC Motor or DC Series Motor

Compound Wound DC Motor or DC Compound Motor

Permanent Magnet DC Motor or PMDC Motor | Working Principle Construction

Brushless DC Motors

Digital Electronics

Cominational Circuit

Binary Adder Half and Full Adder

Binary Substractor

Seven Segment Display

Binary to Gray Code Converter and Grey to Binary Code Converter

Binary to BCD Code Converter

Analog to Digital Converter

Digital Encoder or Binary Encoder

Binary Decoder

Basic Digital Counter

Digital Comparator

BCD to Seven Segment Decoder

Parallel Adder

Parallel Adder or Subtractor

Multiplexer

Demultiplexer

555 Timer and 555 Timer Working

Look Ahead Carry Adder

Arithmetic

Digital Electronics

Boolean Algebra Theorems and Laws of Boolean Algebra

De Morgan Theorem and Demorgans Laws

Truth Tables for Digital Logic

Binary Arithmetic

Binary Addition

Binary Subtraction

Simplifying Boolean Expression using K Map

Binary Division

Excess 3 Code Addition and Subtraction

K Map or Karnaugh Map

Switching Algebra or Boolean Algebra

Binary Multiplication

Parallel Subtractor

Number

Binary Number System | Binary to Decimal and Decimal to Binary Conversion

Binary to Decimal and Decimal to Binary Conversion

BCD or Binary Coded Decimal | BCD Conversion Addition Subtraction

Binary to Octal and Octal to Binary Conversion

Octal to Decimal and Decimal to Octal Conversion

Binary to Hexadecimal and Hex to Binary Conversion

Hexadecimal to Decimal and Decimal to Hexadecimal Conversion

Gray Code | Binary to Gray Code and that to Binary Conversion

Octal Number System

Digital Logic Gates

2′s Complement

1′s Complement

ASCII Code

Hamming Code

2s Complement Arithmetic

Error Detection and Correction Codes

9s complement and 10s complement | Subtraction

Some Common Applications of Logic Gates

Keyboard Encoder

Alphanumeric codes | ASCII code | EBCDIC code | UNICODE

Logic Gate

OR Operation | Logical OR Operation

AND Operation | Logical AND Operation

Logical OR Gate

Logical AND Gate

NOT Gate

Universal Gate | NAND and NOR Gate as Universal Gate

NAND Gate

Diode and Transistor NAND Gate or DTL NAND Gate and NAND Gate ICs

X OR Gate and X NOR Gate

Transistor Transistor Logic or TTL

NOR Gate

Fan out of Logic Gates

INHIBIT Gate

NMOS Logic and PMOS Logic

Schmitt Gates

Logic Families Significance and Types of Logic Families

Squentional Circuit

Flip Flops

S R Flip Flop

Active Low S R Latch

Clocked S R Flip Flops

D Flip Flop

J K Flip Flop

Master Slave Flip Flop

Read Only Memory

Programmable Logic Devices

Programmable Array Logic

Application of Flip Flops

Shift Registers

Buffer Register and Controlled Buffer Register

Data Transfer in Shift Registers

Serial In Serial Out (SISO) Shift Register

Serial in Parallel Out (SIPO) Shift Register

Parallel in Serial Out (PISO) Shift Register

Parallel in Parallel Out (PIPO) Shift Register

Universal Shift Registers

Bidirectional Shift Register

Dynamic Shift Register

Applications of Shift Registers

UPS

Conversion of Flip Flops

Johnson Counter

Sequence Generator

Ring Counter

Distribution

Utility

Electrical Drives

Servo

Servo Motor

Servomechanism

Servo Motor Control

DC Servo Motor

Servo Motor Driver

Servo Motor Applications

Speed Control

Drives

What is Electrical Drive?

Classification of Electrical Drives or Types of Electrical Drives

Electric Motor Power Rating

Motor Duty Class and its Classification

Thermal Model of a Motor

Induction Motor Braking Regenerative Plugging Dynamic Braking of Induction Motor

Induction Motor Drives | Starting Braking Speed Control of Induction Motor

DC Motor Drives

Dynamics of Electrical Drives

Interfacing of Stepper Motor

Control of Electrical Drives

Synchronous Motor Drives

Hysteresis Motor

Stepper Motor Drive

Bipolar Stepper Motor

Braking

What is Braking? Types of Braking | Regenerative Plugging Dynamic Braking

Types of Braking in a DC Motor

Electrical Laws

Law

Joule's Law

Faraday Law of Electromagnetic Induction

Lenz Law of Electromagnetic Induction

Faraday First and Second Laws of Electrolysis

Biot Savart Law

Gauss Theorem

Fleming Left Hand rule and Fleming Right Hand rule

Seebeck Effect and Seebeck Coefficient

Wiedemann Franz Law

Electronics Devices

Rectifier

Mosfet

MOSFET | Working Principle of p-channel n-channel MOSFET

MOSFET Circuits

MOS Capacitor | MOS Capacitance C V Curve

Applications of MOSFET

MOSFET as a Switch

MOSFET Characteristics

Power MOSFET

Semiconductor

Theory of Semiconductor

Intrinsic Semiconductor

Extrinsic Semiconductors

Energy Bands of Silicon

Impurities in Semiconductor

Conductivity of Semiconductor

Current Density in Metal and Semiconductor

Intrinsic Silicon and Extrinsic Silicon

P Type Semiconductor

N Type Semiconductor

P N Junction

Bias of P N Junction

Zener Breakdown

Avalanche Breakdown

Hall Effect

Gallium Arsenide Semiconductor

Silicon Semiconductor

Transistor

Types of Transistors

Bipolar Junction Transistor

Biasing of BJT

Transistor Biasing

Transistor Characteristics

Current Components in a Transistor

Transistor Manufacturing Techniques

Applications of BJT

Transistor as a Switch

Transistor as an Amplifier

JFET

n-channel JFET and p-channel JFET

Applications of FET

DIAC

TRIAC

Phototransistor

Basic Electronic

Op-amp | Working Principle of Op-amp

Amplifier Gain | Decibel or dB Gain

Integrated Circuits | Types of IC

Regulated Power Supply

Laser | Types and Components of Laser

Work Function

Mobility of Charge Carrier

What are Photo Electrons?

Electron volt or eV

Energy Quanta | Development of Quantum Physics

Schottky Effect

Heisenberg Uncertainty Principle

Schrodinger Wave Equation and Wave Function

Cyclotron Basic Construction and Working Principle

Sinusoidal Wave Signal

Common Emitter Amplifier

RC Coupled Amplifier

Differential Amplifier

Wave Particle Duality Principle

Space Charge

Inverting Amplifier

Diode

Vacuum Diode History Working Principle and Types of Vacuum Diode

PN Junction Diode and its Characteristics

Diode | Working and Types of Diode

Diode Characteristics

Half Wave Diode Rectifier

Full Wave Diode Rectifier

Diode Bridge Rectifier

What is Zener Diode?

Application of Zener Diode

LED or Light Emitting Diode

PIN Photodiode | Avalanche Photodiode

Tunnel Diode and its Applications

GUNN Diode

Varactor Diode

Laser Diode

Schottky Diode

Power Diodes

Diode Resistance

Diode Current Equation

Ideal Diode

Reverse Recovery Time of Diode

Diode Testing

Engineering Material

Material

Electrical Engineering Materials

What is an Atom?

Atomic Energy Levels

Classification of Engineering Materials

Classification of Electrical Engineering Materials

Electron Configuration of Atom

Physical Properties of Materials

Mechanical Properties of Engineering Materials

Rutherford Atomic Model

Bohrs Atomic Model

Chemical Properties of Materials

Energy Bands in Crystals

Electrical Properties of Engineering Materials

Fermi Dirac Distribution Function

Magnetic Properties of Engineering Materials

Thermionic Emission

Selection of Material for Engineering Application

Bases of existence of properties in materials

Quantum Numbers

Low Resistivity or High Conductivity of Conducting Material

High Resistivity or Low Conductivity Conducting Material

Factors Effecting the Resistivity of Electrical Materials

Materials used for Heating Elements

Materials used for Precious Works

Materials Used for Transmission Line Conductor

Electrical Stranded Conductors

Electrical Conductor

Materials used for Rheostats

Materials for Lamp Filaments

Classification of Electrical Conducting Material

Applications of Carbon Materials in Electrical Engineering

Selection of Materials Used for Electrical Contacts

Bimetals

Ionic Polarization

Piezoelectricity

Dielectric Materials

Mechanism of Polarization

Dielectric Material as an Electric Field Medium

Orientational Polarization

Electric Arc Furnace

Thermal Conductivity of Metals

Free Electron Theory of Metals

Magnetostriction

Antiferroelectricity

Ferroelectric Materials

Electronic Polarization

Ferromagnetic Materials

A Atom

Generation

Wind

Wind Energy Electricity Generation

Theory of Wind Turbine

Wind Turbine

Basic Construction of Wind Turbine

Power Plant

Electric Power Generation

Power Plants and Types of Power Plant

Thermal Power Generation Plant or Thermal Power Station

Hydro Power Plant | Construction Working and History of Hydro power plant

Nuclear Power Station or Nuclear Power Plant

Diesel Power Station

Why Supply Frequency is 50 Hz or 60 Hz?

Economiser in Thermal Power Plant | Economiser

MHD Generation or Magneto Hydro Dynamic Power Generation

Cogeneration | Combined Heat and Power

Thermoelectric Power Generators or Seebeck Power Generation

Cost of Electrical Energy

Gas Turbine Power Plant

Nuclear Reactor

Fire

Power Plant Fire Protection System

Hydrant System for Power Plant Fire Protection

Medium Velocity Water Spray or MVWS System for Fire Protection

Foam Fire Protection System

Fire Detection and Alarm System

Gas Extinguishing System

Cooling Tower

Condenser

Steam Condenser of Turbine

Jet Condenser | Low Level High Level Ejector Jet Condenser

Surface Steam Condenser

Economics of Power Generation

Boiler

Steam Boiler | Working principle and Types of Boiler

Methods of Firing Steam Boiler

Fire Tube Boiler | Operation and Types of Fire Tube Boiler

Water Tube Boiler | Operation and Types of Water Tube Boiler

Steam Boiler Furnace Grate Firebox Combustion Chamber of Furnace

Feed Water and Steam Circuit of Boiler

Boiler Feed Water Treatment Demineralization Reverse Osmosis Plant Deaerator

Coal Combustion Theory

Fluidized Bed Combustion | Types and Advantages of Fluidized Bed Combustion

Solar

Solar Electricity

Solar Energy System

Types of Solar Power Station

Components of a Solar Electric Generating System

Photovoltaic Effect

Staebler Wronski Effect

Principle of Photovoltaic Cell

Solar Cell

Characteristics of Solar Cell

Solar Cell Manufacturing Technology

Solar PV Module

Standalone Solar Electric System

Solar Lantern

Steam

Steam

Steam Dryness Fraction

Superheated Steam and Steam Phase Diagram

Vapour Properties Mollier Chart Heat Capacities

Steam Flashing

How to Calculate Steam Consumption During Plant Start Up

Effective Steam Distribution System

Water Hammer

Thermodynamics

Engineering Thermodynamics Part 1

Engineering Thermodynamics Part 2

First Law of Thermodynamics

Carnot Cycle

Enthalpy Entropy and Second Law of Thermodynamics

Rankine Cycle

Rankine Cycle and Regenerative Feed Heating

Rankine Cycle for Closed Feed Water Heaters and Rankine Cycle Cogeneration

Ideal Verses Actual Rankine Cycle

Rankine Cycle Efficiency Improvement Techniques

Generator

Alternator

Alternator Synchronous Generator | Definition and Types of Alternator

Working Principle of Alternator

Construction of Alternator

Armature Reaction in Alternator or Synchronous Generator

Rating of Alternator

Derivation of Various Power Conditions in Alternators and Synchronous Motors

Induction Generator | Application of Induction Generator

Parallel Operation of Alternator

Motor Generator Set | M G Set

Winding

DC Generator

Principle of DC Generator

Construction of DC Generator | Yoke Pole Armature Brushes of DC Generator

Characteristics of Series Wound DC Generator

Characteristic of Separately Excited DC Generator

EMF Equation of DC Generator

Parallel Operation of DC Generators

Self Excited DC Generators

Hopkinson Test

Phasor Diagram for Synchronous Generator

DC Generators Performance Curves

Types of DC Generators

Characteristic of Shunt Wound DC Generator

Magnetization Curve of DC Generator

Applications of DC Generators

Illumination Engineering

Lamps

Electric Lamp | Types of Electric Lamp

Materials Used in Lamp Bulb

Incandescent Lamp Principle and Construction of Incandescent Lamp

Tungsten Halogen Lamps

Fluorescent Lamp and Working Principle of Fluorescent Lamp

General Features of Gas Discharge Phenomenon in Fluorescent Lamp

Working Principle of a Tube Light

History of Fluorescent Lamp

High Pressure Sodium Lamps or HPS Lamps

Mercury Vapour Lamp

HID Ballast Circuit and Principle

Electronic Ballast

Metal Halide Lamps

Wiring Diagram for a Single Tube Light Circuit

Construction of Fluorescent Lamp

Why is Fluorescent Lamp Phosphor Coated?

Arc Lamp

Xenon Arc Lamp

Photometer

Lux

Colour Temperature of Black Body Radiation

Photometry and Radiometry

Radiant Flux and Luminous Flux

Irradiance and Illuminance

Radiant Exitance and Luminous Exitance

Radiometric and Photometric Quantities

Laws of Illumination

Tristimulus Values and Chromaticity Coordinates

Transmittance and Reflectance

Radiance and Luminance

Lighting Scheme

Factors to Consider in Interior Lighting Design

Light Luminaires

Flood Lights Luminaire

Day Lighting

Road Lighting Design

Hospital Lighting

Glare in Road Lighting System

Tunnel Lighting

Basic Theory of Light

Induction Motor

Basic Three Phase Induction Motor

Induction Motor | Working Principle | Types of Induction Motor

Working Principle of Three Phase Induction Motor

Types of Three Phase Induction Motor

Torque Equation of Three Phase Induction Motor

Single Phase Induction Motor

Types of Single Phase Induction Motor | Split Phase Capacitor Start Run Shaded Pole

Equivalent Circuit for an Induction Motor

Losses and Efficiency of Induction Motor

Torque Slip Characteristics of Induction Motor

Testing of Induction Motor

Blocked Rotor Test of Induction Motor

No Load Test of Induction Motor

Circle Diagram of Induction Motor

Three Phase Induction Motor

Construction of 3 Phase IM

Squirrel Cage Induction Motor

Deep Bar Double Cage Induction Motor

Starting Methods for Polyphase IM

Speed Control of 3 Phase IM

Crawling and Cogging of Induction Motor

Speed Control of Induction Motor

Schrage Motor

Phasor Diagram for AC Series Motor

Linear Induction Motor

Rotor Fed Induction Motor

MCQs

MCQs

Measurement

Meter

B Meter

Meters

Bridge

Wheatstone Bridge Circuit Theory and Principle

Kelvin Bridge Circuit | Kelvin Double Bridge

Maxwell Bridge Inductance Capacitance Bridge

Anderson′s Bridge | Advantages Disadvantages of Anderson′s Bridge

Hay′s Bridge Circuit Theory Phasor Diagram Advantages Applications

Owens Bridge Circuit and Advantages

Schering Bridge Measurement of Capacitance using Schering Bridge

De Sauty Bridge

Heaviside Bridge Circuit

Blavier Test | Murray Loop Test | Varley Loop Test | Fisher Loop Test

Transducer

Digital Frequency Meter

Electrical Measuring Instruments | Types Accuracy Precision Resolution Speed

Transducer

Cathode Ray Oscilloscope | CRO

Ohmmeter

Errors in Measurement | Classification of Errors

Lissajous Patterns of CRO or Cathode Ray Oscilloscope

Frequency Limitation of an Oscilloscope

Potentiometer

Permanent Magnet Moving Coil Instrument or PMMC Instrument

Characteristics of Sensors

Signal Generator

Moving Iron Instrument

Induction Type Meters

Measurement of Voltage Current and Frequency by Oscilloscope

Electrostatic Type Instruments Construction Principle Torque Equation

What is Low Power Factor Wattmeter ?

Resistance Temperature Detector or RTD | Construction and Working Principle

Energy Meter with Lag Adjustment Devices

Rectifier Type Instrument | Construction Principle of Operation

Thermistor Thermometer

Digital Storage Oscilloscope

Electrodynamometer Type Wattmeter

Thermocouple type Instruments Construction Principle of Operation

Thermistor

Double Beam Oscilloscope

Protection of Meters

Measurement of Three Phase Power

Bimetallic Strip Thermometer

Sampling Oscilloscope

Varmeter | Single Phase and Polyphase Varmeter

Thermocouple Temperature Measurement

Temperature Transducers

Megger | Working Principle Types History Uses of Megger

Radiation Pyrometer | Types Working Principle

Optical Pyrometer

Piezoelectric Transducer

Strain Gauge

Weston Type Frequency Meter

Power Factor Meters | Electrodynamometer Type Power Factor Meter

Inductive Transducers

Phase Sequence Indicator

Ammeter Working Principle and Types of Ammeter

LVDT

Oscillator Transducer

Digital Multimeter

Insulation Resistance Test and Polarization Index Test

Hartley Oscillator

Tan Delta Test |Loss Angle Test | Dissipation Factor Test

Colpitts Oscillator

Electronic DC Voltmeter

Working Principle of Voltmeter and Types of Voltmeter

Clapp Oscillator

RC Phase Shift Oscillator

Digital Voltmeters Working Principle of Digital Voltmeter

Wien Bridge Oscillator

Measurement of Electrical Energy

Gunn Oscillator

Energy Meter Testing

Crystal Oscillator

AC Potentiometer

Monostable Multivibrator

Construction of AC Energy Meter

Bistable Multivibrator

Watt Hour Meter

Capacitance Meter

Oscillator

Vector Impedance Meter

Astable Multivibrator

How to Use a Digital Multimeter?

Voltage Controlled Oscillator

D Transducer

Sensor | Types of Sensor

Temperature Sensor Temperature Measurement | Types of Temperature Sensor

Voltage Sensor

Instrument

Power Electronics

Thyristor

Power Electronics

Application of Power Electronics

Advantages and Disadvantages of Power Electronic Converters

Thyristor

Silicon Controlled Rectifier SCR | Two Transistor Model | Operating Principle

Characteristics of Thyristor

ON OFF Characteristics of SCR

Thyristor Triggering

Gate Characteristics of SCR

Rating of SCR

Thyristor Protection

Connection of SCR

Chopper

Silicon Controlled Rectifier (SCR)

Cycloconverter

Dual Converter

IGBT

Protection

Protection Scheme

Protection System

Trip Circuit Supervision

Differential Protection of Alternator

Alarm Annunciator

Rotor Earth Fault Protection of Alternator

Loss of Field or Excitation Protection of Alternator or Generator

Overvoltage Protection

Motor Protection Circuit Breaker

Stator Earth Fault Protection of Alternator

Inter Turn Fault Protection of Stator Winding of Generator

Motor Protection Scheme

Motor Thermal Overload Protection

Electrical Fault Calculation | Positive Negative Zero Sequence Impedance

External and Internal Faults in Transformer

Backup Protection of Transformer | Over Current and Earth Fault

Transformer Protection and Transformer Fault

Generator Protection

Protection of Lines or Feeder

Busbar Protection | Busbar Differential Protection Scheme

Protection of Capacitor Bank

Protection Relay

Types of Electrical Protection Relays or Protective Relays

Motor Protection Relay for High Voltage Induction Motor

Feeder Protection Relays

Pick Up Current | Current Setting | Plug Setting Multiplier and Time Setting Multiplier of Relay

Electromagnetic Relay Working | Types of Electromagnetic Relays

Induction Cup Relay Working Principle Construction and Types

Over Current Relay Working Principle Types

Differential Relay

Thermal Relay Working Principle Construction of Thermal Overload Relay

Distance Relay or Impedance Relay Working Principle Types

Instantaneous Relay

Inverse Time Relay | Definite Time Lag Relay

Backup Relay

Safety

safety

Safety Precautions for Electrical System

Safety Rules for Overhead Lines

First Aid for Electrical Burns

Treatment of Electric Shock

Safety Rules for Medium Voltage Installation

Mouth to Mouth Method of Artificial Respiration

Special Motor

Switchgear

MCB

Electrical Fuse HRC Fuse High Rupturing Capacity

Miniature Circuit Breaker or MCB

Working Principle of Earth Leakage Circuit Breaker ELCB | Voltage and Current ELCB | RCCB

ARC

Switchgear

Electrical Power Distribution

Switchgear Protection

Isolator

LV Switchgear

MV Switchgear

HV Switchgear

Equipment Earthing

Gas Insulated Switchgear

Metal Enclosed Switchgear

Vacuum Switchgear

Lightning Arrester

Basic Insulation Level

CB

Electrical Circuit Breaker | Operation and Types of Circuit Breaker

Circuit Breaker Maintenance

High Voltage Testing | Low Frequency Constant DC High Frequency Surge or Impulse Test

Sulfur Hexafluoride | SF6 Gas Properties

Routine Tests of Circuit Breakers

Remote Controlling of Circuit Breaker by Microcontroller

Circuit Breaker Operation

Rating of Circuit Breaker | Short Circuit Breaking Making Current

Short Circuit Current of Circuit Breaker

Air Circuit Breaker Air Blast Circuit Breaker

Oil Circuit Breaker Bulk and Minimum Oil Circuit Breaker

Types and Operation of SF6 Circuit Breaker

Vacuum Circuit Breaker or VCB and Vacuum Interrupter

Residual Current Circuit Breaker

Dielectric Gases

Synchronous Motor

Synchronousmotor

Synchronous Motor Working Principle

Phasor Diagram for Synchronous Motor

Synchronous Motor Excitation

Hunting in Synchronous Motor

AC Series Motor

Excitation Control of Synchronous Machine

Transformer

Transformer Protection

Transformer Test

Transformer Testing

Winding Resistance Measurement

Ratio Test of Transformer

Vector Group Test

OC & SC Test

Dielectric Test

Temperature Rise Test

Impulse Test

Maintenance of Transformer

SFRA Test

Installation of Transformer

Commissioning of Transformer

Transformer Accessories

Transformer Accessories

Silica Gel Breather

Conservator Tank

Radiator of Transformer

Magnetic Oil Gauge

Temperature Indicators

Transformer Cooling System

Tap Changer

Tertiary Winding

Transformer Core

Instrument Transformer

Instrument Transformers

Current Transformer CT class Ratio Error Phase Angle Error in Current Transformer

Voltage Transformer or Potential Transformer Theory

Knee Point Voltage of Current Transformer PS Class

Accuracy Limit Factor and Instrument Security Factor of Current Transformer

Isolation Transformer

Transformer Type

Power Transformer

Step Up Transformer

Step Down Transformer

Auto Transformer

High Voltage Transformer

Distribution Transformer

Dry Type Transformer

Air Core Transformer

Design of Inductor in Switched Mode Power Supply Systems

Design of High Frequency Pulse Transformer

Single Phase Transformer

Toroidal Transformer

Oil

Basic Transformer

What is transformer? Definition and Working Principle of Transformer

EMF Equation of Transformer | Turns Voltage Transformation Ratio of Transformer

Ideal Transformer

Theory of Transformer on Load and No Load Operation

Resistance and Leakage Reactance or Impedance of Transformer

Equivalent Circuit of Transformer referred to Primary and Secondary

Hysteresis Eddy Current Iron or Core Losses and Copper Loss in Transformer

Voltage Regulation of Transformer

Single Three Phase Transformer vs Bank of Three Single Phase Transformers

Parallel operation of Transformers

Magnetizing Inrush Current in Power Transformer

Transmission

Tower

Transmission Effect

Corona Effect

Ferranti Effect

Advantages of Three Phase System over Single Phase System

Inductance of Single Conductor

Inductance in Three Phase Line

Why Supply Frequency 50 or 60 Hz not Other Values than these?

Power System Stability

Load Flow Analysis

Transient Stability

Flexible AC Transmission Systems

Tariff of Electricity

Power Factor

Skin Effect

Inductance of Single Phase System

Auto Recloser

Load Flow and Y Bus

Equal Area Criterion

Steady State Stability

Substation

Cable

Power Cable

Overhead Conductor

Testing of Power Cable

Resistance Test

Insulation Thickness Test

Annealing Test

Tensile Test

Persulphate Test

Wrapping Test

Capacitor Bank

Capacitor Bank

Types of Capacitor Bank

Testing of Capacitor Bank

Rating of Capacitor Bank

Shunt Capacitor

Switchable Capacitor Bank

Location of Capacitor Bank

Insulator

Insulator

Types of Insulator

Insulation Coordination

Insulator Testing

Dielectric Properties of Insulation

Transmission Line

Electrical Transmission System

Transmission Line

Transmission Voltages

Short Transmission Line

Medium Transmission Line

Long Transmission Line

Performance of Transmission Line

ABCD Parameters

Sag

Surge Impedance Loading

Admittance

Advantages of Bundled Conductors

Bundled Conductors

Ground Clearance of Different Transmission Lines

Utilities

Electrical Appliances