Losses in Transformer
Working Principle of Transformer
Theory of Transformer
EMF Equation of Transformer
Leakage Reactance of Transformer
Equivalent Circuit of Transformer
Voltage Regulation of Transformer
Losses in Transformer
Open & Short Circuit Test on Transformer
Tertiary Winding of Transformer
Parallel operation of Transformers
Transformer Cooling System
Core of Transformer
Transformer Insulating Oil
Dissolved Gas Analysis of Transformer Oil
Over Fluxing in Transformer
Three phase transformer
• Accuracy Limit & Instrument Security Factor
• Knee Point Voltage of Current Transformer
Earthing or Grounding Transformer
External & Internal Faults in Transformer
Backup Protection of Transformer
Differential Protection of Transformer
Restricted Earth Fault Protection
Buchholz Relay in Transformer
As the electrical transformer is a static device, mechanical loss in
transformer normally does not come into picture. We generally consider
only electrical losses in transformer. Loss in any machine is broadly
defined as difference between input power and output power.
When input power is supplied to the primary of transformer, some
portion of that power is used to compensate core losses in transformer i.e. Hysteresis loss in transformer and Eddy Current loss in transformer core and some portion of the input power is lost as I2R loss and dissipated as heat in the primary and secondary winding, as because these windings have some internal resistance in them. The first one is called core loss or iron loss in transformer and later is known as ohmic loss or copper loss in transformer. Another loss occurs in transformer, known as Stray Loss, due to Stray fluxes link with the mechanical structure and winding conductors.
Copper loss in transformer
Copper loss is I2R loss, in primary side it is I12R1 and in secondary side it is I22R2 loss, where I1 & I2 are primary & secondary current of transformer and R1 & R2 are resistances of primary & secondary winding. As the both primary & secondary currents depend upon load of transformer, so copper loss in transformer vary with load.
Core losses in transformer
Hysteresis loss and eddy current loss, both depend upon magnetic properties of the materials used to construct the core of transformer and its design. So these losses in transformer are fixed and do not depend upon the load current. So core losses in transformer which is alternatively known as iron loss in transformer and can be considered as constant for all range of load.
Hysteresis loss in transformer is denoted as,
Wh = KhfBm1.6 watts
Eddy Current loss in transformer is denoted as,
We = Kef2Kf2Bm2 watts
Where, Kh = Hysteresis Constant.
Ke = Eddy Current Constant.
Kf = form Constant.
Copper loss can simply be denoted as,
IL2R2′ + Stray loss
Where, IL = I2 = load of transformer, and R2′ is the resistance of transformer referred to secondary.
Now we will discuss Hysteresis loss and Eddy Current loss in little bit more details for better understanding the topic of losses in transformer
Hysteresis loss in transformer
Hysteresis loss in transformer can be explained in different ways. We will discuss two of them, one is physical explanation other is mathematical explanation.
Physical explanation of Hysteresis loss
The magnetic core of transformer is made of ′Cold Rolled Grain Oriented Silicon Steel′. Steel is very good ferromagnetic material. This kind of materials are very sensitive to be magnetized. That means whenever magnetic flux passes through,it will behave like magnet. Ferromagnetic substances have numbers of domains in their structure. Domain are very small region in the material structure, where all the dipoles are paralleled to same direction. In other words, the domains are like small small permanent magnet situated randomly in the structure of substance. These domains are arranged inside the material structure in such a random manner, that net resultant magnetic field of the said material is zero. Whenever external magnetic field or mmf is is applied to that substance, these randomly directed domains are arranged themselves in parallel to the axis of applied mmf. After removing this external mmf, maximum numbers of domains again come to random positions, but some few of them still remain in their changed position. Because of these unchanged domains the substance becomes slightly magnetized permanently. This magnetism is called " Spontaneous Magnetism". To neutralize this magnetism some opposite mmf is required to be applied. The magneto motive force or mmf applied in the transformer core is alternating. For every cycle, due to this domain reversal there will be extra work done. For this reason, there will be a consumption of electrical energy which is known as Hysteresis loss of transformer.
Mathematical explanation of Hysteresis loss in transformer
Determination of Hysteresis loss
Consider a ring of ferromagnetic specimen of circumference L meter, cross - sectional area a m2 and N turns of insulated wire as shown in the picture beside,
Let us consider, the electric current flowing through the coil is I amp,
Let, the flux density at this instant is B,
Therefore, total flux through the ring, Φ = BXa Wb
As the electric current flowing through the solenoid is alternating, the flux produced in the iron ring is also alternating in nature, so the emf (e′) induced will be expressed as,
According to Lenz,s law this induced emf will oppose the flow of electric current, therefore, in order to maintain the current I in the coil, the source must supply an equal and opposite emf. Hence applied emf ,
Energy consumed in short time dt, during which the flux density has changed,
Thus, total work done or energy consumed during one complete cycle of magnetism,
Now aL is the volume of the ring and H.dB is the area of elementary strip of B - H curve shown in the figure above,
= total area enclosed by Hysteresis Loop.
Therefore, Energy consumed per cycle = volume of the ring X area of hysteresis loop.
In the case of transformer, this ring can be considered as magnetic core of transformer. Hence this work done is nothing but electrical energy loss in transformer core and this is known as hysteresis loss in transformer.
In transformer we supply alternating current in the primary, this alternating current produces alternating magnetizing flux in the core and as this flux links with secondary winding there will be induced voltage in secondary, resulting current to flow through the load connected with it. Some of the alternating fluxes of transformer may also link with other conducting parts like steel core or iron body of transformer etc. As alternating flux links with these parts of transformer, there would be an locally induced emf. Due to these emfs there would be currents which will circulate locally at that parts of the transformer. These circulating current will not contribute in output of the transformer and dissipated as heat. This type of energy loss is called eddy current loss of transformer. This was a broad and simple explanation of eddy current loss. The detail explanation of this loss is not in the scope of discussion in that chapter.