Online Electrical Engineering
Design of Inductor in Switched Mode Power Supply Systems
Electrical Power Transformer | Definition and Types of Transformer
What is transformer? Definition & Working Principle of Transformer
Theory of Transformer on load and no load operation
EMF Equation of Transformer | Turns Voltage Transformation Ratio of Transformer
Resistance & Leakage Reactance or Impedance of Transformer
Equivalent Circuit of Transformer referred to Primary and Secondary
Hysteresis Eddy Current Iron or Core Losses and Copper Loss in Transformer
Open and Short Circuit Test on Transformer
Voltage Regulation of Transformer
Over Fluxing in Transformer
Parallel operation of Transformers
Transformer Accessories | Breather and Conservator Tank | Radiator
Transformer Insulating Oil and Types of Transformer Oil
Silica Gel Breather of Transformer
Conservator Tank of Transformer
Radiator of Transformer | Function of Radiator
Magnetic Oil Gauge or MOG | Magnetic Oil Level Indicator of Transformer
Oil Winding and Remote Temperature Indicator of Transformer
On Load and No Load Tap Changer of Transformer | OLTC and NLTC
Transformer Cooling System and Methods
Maintenance of Transformer
What is Auto Transformer ?
Buchholz Relay in transformer | Buchholz Relay operation and principle
Transformer Testing | Type Test and Routine Test of Transformer
Voltage and Turn Ratio Test of Transformer
Transformer Winding Resistance Measurement
Insulation Dielectric Test of Transformer
Transformer Oil and Winding Temperature Rise Test
Impulse Test of Transformer
Vector Group Test of Power Transformer
Sweep Frequency Response Analysis Test | SFRA Test
DGA or Dissolved Gas Analysis of Transformer Oil | Furfural or Furfuraldehyde Analysis
Distribution Transformer | All Day Efficiency of Distribution Transformer
Installation of Power Transformer
Commissioning of Power Transformer
Magnetizing Inrush Current in Power Transformer
Tertiary Winding of Transformer | Three Winding Transformer
Single Three Phase Transformer vs bank of three Single Phase Transformers
What is Earthing Transformer or Grounding Transformer
Air Core Transformer
High Voltage Transformer
Current Transformer CT class Ratio Error Phase Angle Error in Current Transformer
Voltage Transformer or Potential Transformer Theory
Accuracy Limit Factor and Instrument Security Factor of Current Transformer
Knee Point Voltage of Current Transformer PS Class
Differential Protection of Transformer | Differential Relays
Restricted Earth Fault Protection of Transformer | REF Protection
Core of Transformer and Design of Transformer Core
Design of High Frequency Pulse Transformer
Hysteresis Eddy Current Iron or Core Losses and Copper Loss in Transformer
Under Electrical Transformer
Losses in Transformer
As the electrical transformer is a static device, mechanical loss in transformer normally does not come into picture. We generally consider only electrical losses in transformer. Loss in any machine is broadly defined as difference between input power and output power. When input power is supplied to the primary of transformer, some portion of that power is used to compensate core losses in transformer i.e. Hysteresis loss in transformer and Eddy current loss in transformer core and some portion of the input power is lost as I2R loss and dissipated as heat in the primary and secondary windings, because these windings have some internal resistance in them. The first one is called core loss or iron loss in transformer and the later is known as ohmic loss or copper loss in transformer. Another loss occurs in transformer, known as Stray Loss, due to Stray fluxes link with the mechanical structure and winding conductors.
Copper Loss in TransformerCopper loss is I2R loss, in primary side it is I12R1 and in secondary side it is I22R2 loss, where I1 & I2 are primary & secondary current of transformer and R1 & R2 are resistances of primary & secondary winding. As the both primary & secondary currents depend upon load of transformer, copper loss in transformer vary with load.
Core Losses in TransformerHysteresis loss and eddy current loss, both depend upon magnetic properties of the materials used to construct the core of transformer and its design. So these losses in transformer are fixed and do not depend upon the load current. So core losses in transformer which is alternatively known as iron loss in transformer can be considered as constant for all range of load.
Hysteresis loss in transformer is denoted as,
Eddy current loss in transformer is denoted as,
Where, Kh = Hysteresis constant.
Ke = Eddy current constant.
Kf = form constant.
Copper loss can simply be denoted as,
Where, IL = I2 = load of transformer, and R2′ is the resistance of transformer referred to secondary.
Now we will discuss Hysteresis loss and Eddy current loss in little bit more details for better understanding the topic of losses in transformer
Hysteresis Loss in TransformerHysteresis loss in transformer can be explained in different ways. We will discuss two of them, one is physical explanation and the other is mathematical explanation.
Physical Explanation of Hysteresis LossThe magnetic core of transformer is made of ′Cold Rolled Grain Oriented Silicon Steel′. Steel is very good ferromagnetic material. This kind of materials are very sensitive to be magnetized. That means, whenever magnetic flux would pass through, it will behave like magnet. Ferromagnetic substances have numbers of domains in their structure. Domains are very small regions in the material structure, where all the dipoles are paralleled to same direction. In other words, the domains are like small permanent magnets situated randomly in the structure of substance. These domains are arranged inside the material structure in such a random manner, that net resultant magnetic field of the said material is zero. Whenever external magnetic field or mmf is applied to that substance, these randomly directed domains get arranged themselves in parallel to the axis of applied mmf. After removing this external mmf, maximum numbers of domains again come to random positions, but some of them still remain in their changed position. Because of these unchanged domains, the substance becomes slightly magnetized permanently. This magnetism is called " Spontaneous Magnetism". To neutralize this magnetism, some opposite mmf is required to be applied. The magneto motive force or mmf applied in the transformer core is alternating. For every cycle due to this domain reversal, there will be extra work done. For this reason, there will be a consumption of electrical energy which is known as Hysteresis loss of transformer.
Mathematical Explanation of Hysteresis Loss in Transformer
Determination of Hysteresis Loss
Consider a ring of ferromagnetic specimen of circumference L meter, cross - sectional area a m2 and N turns of insulated wire as shown in the picture beside,
Let us consider, the current flowing through the coil is I amp,
Let, the flux density at this instant is B,
Therefore, total flux through the ring, Φ = BXa Wb
As the current flowing through the solenoid is alternating, the flux produced in the iron ring is also alternating in nature, so the emf (e′) induced will be expressed as,
According to Lenz,s law this induced emf will oppose the flow of current, therefore, in order to maintain the current I in the coil, the source must supply an equal and opposite emf. Hence applied emf ,
Energy consumed in short time dt, during which the flux density has changed,
Thus, total work done or energy consumed during one complete cycle of magnetism,
Now aL is the volume of the ring and H.dB is the area of elementary strip of B - H curve shown in the figure above,
Therefore, Energy consumed per cycle = volume of the ring X area of hysteresis loop.
In the case of transformer, this ring can be considered as magnetic core of transformer. Hence, the work done is nothing but the electrical energy loss in transformer core and this is known as hysteresis loss in transformer.