What is an Oscillator?
Current Transformer CT class Ratio Error Phase Angle Error in Current Transformer
Voltage Transformer or Potential Transformer Theory
Knee Point Voltage of Current Transformer PS Class
Accuracy Limit Factor and Instrument Security Factor of Current Transformer
What is transformer? Definition and Working Principle of Transformer
EMF Equation of Transformer | Turns Voltage Transformation Ratio of Transformer
Theory of Transformer on Load and No Load Operation
Resistance and Leakage Reactance or Impedance of Transformer
Equivalent Circuit of Transformer referred to Primary and Secondary
Hysteresis Eddy Current Iron or Core Losses and Copper Loss in Transformer
Voltage Regulation of Transformer
Single Three Phase Transformer vs bank of three Single Phase Transformers
Parallel operation of Transformers
Magnetizing Inrush Current in Power Transformer
Transformer Insulating Oil and Types of Transformer Oil
DGA or Dissolved Gas Analysis of Transformer Oil | Furfural or Furfuraldehyde Analysis
Transformer Accessories | Breather and Conservator Tank | Radiator
Silica Gel Breather of Transformer
Conservator Tank of Transformer
Radiator of Transformer | Function of Radiator
Magnetic Oil Gauge or MOG | Magnetic Oil Level Indicator of Transformer
Oil Winding and Remote Temperature Indicator of Transformer
Transformer Cooling System and Methods
On Load and No Load Tap Changer of Transformer | OLTC and NLTC
Tertiary Winding of Transformer | Three Winding Transformer
Core of Transformer and Design of Transformer Core
Restricted Earth Fault Protection of Transformer | REF Protection
Buchholz Relay in transformer | Buchholz Relay operation and principle
What is Earthing Transformer or Grounding Transformer
Differential Protection of Transformer | Differential Relays
Over Fluxing in Transformer
Transformer Testing | Type Test and Routine Test of Transformer
Transformer Winding Resistance Measurement
Voltage and Turn Ratio Test of Transformer
Vector Group Test of Power Transformer
Open and Short Circuit Test on Transformer
Insulation Dielectric Test of Transformer
Transformer Oil and Winding Temperature Rise Test
Impulse Test of Transformer
Maintenance of Transformer
Sweep Frequency Response Analysis Test | SFRA Test
Installation of Power Transformer
Commissioning of Power Transformer
Electrical Power Transformer | Definition and Types of Transformer
What is Auto Transformer ?
High Voltage Transformer
Distribution Transformer | All Day Efficiency of Distribution Transformer
Dry Type Transformer
Air Core Transformer
Design of Inductor in Switched Mode Power Supply Systems
Design of High Frequency Pulse Transformer
Voltage Transformer or Potential Transformer Theory
Potential Transformer DefinitionPotential transformer or voltage transformer gets used in electrical power system for stepping down the system voltage to a safe value which can be fed to low ratings meters and relays. Commercially available relays and meters used for protection and metering, are designed for low voltage. This is a simplest form of potential transformer definition.
Voltage Transformer or Potential Transformer TheoryA voltage transformer theory or potential transformer theory is just like a theory of general purpose step down transformer. Primary of this transformer is connected across the phase and ground. Just like the transformer used for stepping down purpose, potential transformer i.e. PT has lower turns winding at its secondary.
The system voltage is applied across the terminals of primary winding of that transformer, and then proportionate secondary voltage appears across the secondary terminals of the PT. The secondary voltage of the PT is generally 110 V. In an ideal potential transformer or voltage transformer, when rated burden gets connected across the secondary; the ratio of primary and secondary voltages of transformer is equal to the turns ratio and furthermore, the two terminal voltages are in precise phase opposite to each other. But in actual transformer, there must be an error in the voltage ratio as well as in the phase angle between primary and secondary voltages. The errors in potential transformer or voltage transformer can be best explained by phasor diagram, and this is the main part of potential transformer theory.
Error in PT or Potential Transformer or VT or Voltage TransformerIs - Secondary current. Es - Secondary induced emf. Vs - Secondary terminal voltage. Rs - Secondary winding resistance. Xs - Secondary winding reactance. Ip - Primary current. Ep - Primary induced emf. Vp - Primary terminal voltage. Rp - Primary winding resistance. Xp - Primary winding reactance. KT - Turns ratio = Numbers of primary turns/number of secondary turns. I0 - Excitation current. Im - Magnetizing component of I0. Iw - Core loss component of I0. Φm - Main flux. β - Phase angle error.
As in the case of current transformer and other purpose electrical power transformer, total primary current Ip is the vector sum of excitation current and the current equal to reversal of secondary current multiplied by the ratio 1/KT. Hence,Ip = I0 + Is/KT. If Vp is the system voltage applied to the primary of the PT, then voltage drops due to resistance and reactance of primary winding due to primary current Ip will come into picture. After subtracting this voltage drop from Vp, Ep will appear across the primary terminals. This Ep is equal to primary induced emf. This primary emf will transform to the secondary winding by mutual induction and transformed emf is Es. Again this Es will be dropped by secondary winding resistance and reactance, and resultant will actually appear across the burden terminals and it is denoted as Vs.