# Wheatstone Bridge Circuit Theory and Principle

Electrical Measuring Instruments
Errors in Measurement
Permanent Magnet Moving Coil Instrument
Moving Iron Instrument
Electrostatic Type Instruments
Thermocouple Type Instruments
Rectifier Type Instruments
Wheatstone Bridge
Kelvin Bridge
Maxwell Bridge
Anderson’s Bridge
Hay’s Bridge
Owen’s Bridge
Schering Bridge
Heaviside Bridge
De Sauty’s Bridge
Temperature Sensors and its types
Resistance Temperature Detector or RTD
Thermocouple Temperature Measurement
Thermistor Thermometer
Radiation Pyrometer
Bimetallic Strip Thermometer
Optical Pyrometer
Electrodynamometer Type Wattmeter
Induction Type Meters
Energy Meter with Lag Adjustment Devices
Low Power Factor Wattmeter
Working Principle of Potentiometer
Megger
Power Factor Meters
Varmeter
Measurement of Three Phase Power
Weston Type Frequency Meter
Phase Sequence Indicator
Loop Tests
Cathode Ray Oscilloscope

## Wheatstone Bridge

For measuring accurately any electrical resistance**Wheatstone bridge**is widely used. There are two known resistors, one variable resistor and one unknown resistor connected in bridge form as shown below. By adjusting the variable resistor the current through the Galvanometer is made zero. When the current through the galvanometer becomes zero, the ratio of two known resistors is exactly equal to the ratio of adjusted value of variable resistance and the value of unknown resistance. In this way the value of unknown electrical resistance can easily be measured by using a

**Wheatstone Bridge**.

## Wheatstone Bridge Theory

The general arrangement of**Wheatstone bridge circuit**is shown in the figure below. It is a four arms bridge circuit where arm AB, BC, CD and AD are consisting of electrical resistances P, Q, S and R respectively. Among these resistances P and Q are known fixed electrical resistances and these two arms are referred as ratio arms. An accurate and sensitive Galvanometer is connected between the terminals B and D through a switch S

_{2}. The voltage source of this Wheatstone bridge is connected to the terminals A and C via a switch S

_{1}as shown. A variable resistor S is connected between point C and D. The potential at point D can be varied by adjusting the value of variable resistor. Suppose current I

_{1}and current I

_{2}are flowing through the paths ABC and ADC respectively. If we vary the electrical resistance value of arm CD the value of current I

_{2}will also be varied as the voltage across A and C is fixed. If we continue to adjust the variable resistance one situation may comes when voltage drop across the resistor S that is I

_{2}.S is becomes exactly equal to voltage drop across resistor Q that is I

_{1}.Q. Thus the potential at point B becomes equal to the potential at point D hence potential difference between these two points is zero hence current through galvanometer is nil. Then the deflection in the galvanometer is nil when the switch S

_{2}is closed. Now, from

**Wheatstone bridge circuit**and Now potential of point B in respect of point C is nothing but the voltage drop across the resistor Q and this is Again potential of point D in respect of point C is nothing but the voltage drop across the resistor S and this is Equating, equations (i) and (ii) we get, Here in the above equation, the value of S and P ⁄ Q are known, so value of R can easily be determined. The electrical resistances P and Q of the Wheatstone bridge are made of definite ratio such as 1:1; 10:1 or 100:1 known as ratio arms and S the rheostat arm is made continuously variable from 1 to 1,000 Ω or from 1 to 10,000 Ω The above explanation is most basic

**Wheatstone bridge theory**.