Faraday's Laws of Electrolysis
Resistances in Series and Parallel
Static Electric Field
Heating Effect of Electric Current
History and Working Principle of Batteries
Principle of Electrolysis
Faraday Laws of Electrolysis
Applications of Electrolysis
Working of Lead Acid Battery
Construction of Lead Acid Battery
Nickel Iron Batteries or Edison Batteries
Aluminum Air Battery
Before understanding Faraday's laws of electrolysis we have to recall the process of electrolysis a metal sulfate.
Whenever an electrolyte like metal sulfate is diluted in water, its molecules split into positive and negative ions. The positive ions or metal ions move to the electrodes connected with negative terminal of the battery where these positive ions take electrons from it, become pure metal atom and deposited on the electrode. Whereas negative ions or sulphions move to the electrode connected with positive terminal of the battery where these negative ions give up their extra electrons and become SO4 radical. Since SO4 can not exist in electrically neutral state it will attack metallic positive electrode and form metallic sulfate which will again dissolve in the water. Faraday’s Laws of Electrolysis combine two laws and these are,
Faraday's First Law of Electrolysis
From above brief explanation it is clear that flow of current through the external battery circuit fully depends upon how many electrons transferred from negative electrode or cathode to positive metallic ion or cations. If the cations have valency of two like Cu++ then for every cation there would be two electrons transfer from cathode to cation. We know that every electron has negative electrical charge − 1.602 X 10 − 19 Coulombs and say it is - e. So for disposition of every Cu atom on the cathode there would be - 2.e charge transfers from cathode to cation. Now say for t time there would be total n number of copper atoms are deposited on the cathode so total charge transferred, would be - 2.n.e Coulombs. Mass m of the deposited copper is obviously function of number of atoms deposited. So it can be concluded that mass of the deposited copper is directly proportional to the quantity of electrical charge passes through the electrolyte. Hence mass of deposited copper m ∝ Q quantity of electrical charge passes through the electrolyte.
Faraday's First Law of Electrolysis states that only
According to this law the chemical deposition due to flow of current through an electrolyte is directly proportional to the quantity of electricity (coulombs) passed through it.
i.e. mass of chemical deposition, m ∝ Quantity of electricity, Q ⇒ m ∝ Z.Q
Where Z is a constant of proportionality and is known as electrochemical equivalent of the substance.
If we put Q = 1 coulombs in the above equation, we will get Z = m which implies that electrochemical equivalent of any substance is the amount of the substance deposited on passing of 1 coulomb through its solution. This constant of electrochemical equivalent is generally expressed in terms of milligram per coulomb or kilogram per coulomb.
Faraday's Second Law of Electrolysis
So far we have learned that mass of the chemical, deposited due to electrolysis is proportional to the quantity of electricity passes through the electrolyte. The mass of the chemical, deposited due to electrolysis is not only proportional to the quantity of electricity passes through the electrolyte but it also depends upon some other factor. Every substance will have its won atomic weight. So for same number of atoms different substances will have different masses. Again how many atoms deposited on the electrodes also depends upon their number of valency. If valency is more then for same amount of electricity number of deposited atoms will be less whereas if valency is less then for same quantity of electricity more number of atoms to be deposited. So for same quantity of electricity or charge passes through different electrolytes, the mass of deposited chemical is directly proportional to its atomic weight and inversely proportional to its valency.
Faraday's Second Law of Electrolysis states that when the same quantity of electricity is passed through several electrolytes, the mass of the substances deposited are proportional to their respective chemical equivalent or equivalent weight.
Chemical Equivalent or Equivalent Weight
The chemical equivalent or equivalent weight of a substance can be determined by Faraday’s Laws of Electrolysis and it is defined as the weight of that subtenancy which will combine with or displace unit weight of hydrogen. The chemical equivalent of hydrogen is, thus, unity. Since valency of a substance is equal to the number of hydrogen atoms, which it can replace or with which it can combine, the chemical equivalent of a substance, therefore may be defined as the ratio of its atomic weight to its valency.