Uninterruptible Power Supply | UPS
Fermi Dirac Distribution Function
Fault of Electric Cable
Energy Bands in Crystals
Gallium Arsenide Semiconductor
Atomic Energy Levels
Engineering Thermodynamics Part 1
Science of Engineering Thermodynamics Part 2
Basic Law of Conservation and First Law of Thermodynamics
Carnot Cycle and Reversed Carnot Cycle
Enthalpy Entropy and Second Law of Thermodynamics
Rankine Cycle and Regenerative Feed Heating
Rankine Cycle for Closed Feed Water Heaters and Rankine Cycle Cogeneration
Ideal Verses Actual Rankine Cycle
Rankine Cycle Efficiency Improvement Techniques
Steam Boiler | Working principle and Types of Boiler
Methods of Firing Steam Boiler
Fire Tube Boiler | Operation and Types of Fire Tube Boiler
Water Tube Boiler | Operation and Types of Water Tube Boiler
Steam Boiler Furnace Grate Firebox Combustion Chamber of Furnace
Feed Water and Steam Circuit of Boiler
Boiler Feed Water Treatment Demineralization Reverse Osmosis Plant Deaerator
Coal Combustion Theory
Fluidized Bed Combustion | Types and Advantages of Fluidized Bed Combustion
Steam Condenser of Turbine
Jet Condenser | Low Level High Level Ejector Jet Condenser
Surface Steam Condenser
Economics of Power Generation
Cooling Tower Useful Terms and Cooling Tower Performance
Cooling Tower Material and Main Components
Power Plant Fire Protection System
Hydrant System for Power Plant Fire Protection
Medium Velocity Water Spray or MVWS System for Fire Protection
Foam Fire Protection System
Fire Detection and Alarm System
Gas Extinguishing System
Electric Power Generation
Power Plants and Types of Power Plant
Thermal Power Generation Plant or Thermal Power Station
Hydro Power Plant | Construction Working and History of Hydro power plant
Nuclear Power Station or Nuclear Power Plant
Diesel Power Station
Why Supply Frequency is 50 Hz or 60 Hz?
Economiser in Thermal Power Plant | Economiser
MHD Generation or Magneto Hydro Dynamic Power Generation
Cogeneration | Combined Heat and Power
Thermoelectric Power Generators or Seebeck Power Generation
Cost of Electrical Energy
Gas Turbine Power Plant
Solar Energy Solar Electricity
Solar Energy System | History of Solar Energy
Types of Solar Power Station
Components of a Solar Electric Generating System
What is photovoltaic effect?
Staebler Wronski Effect
Working Principle of Photovoltaic Cell or Solar Cell
Characteristics of a Solar Cell and Parameters of a Solar Cell
Solar Cell Manufacturing Technology
What is a Solar PV Module?
What is Standalone Solar Electric System?
Steam Dryness Fraction
Superheated Steam and Steam Phase Diagram
Vapour Properties Mollier Chart Heat Capacities
What is Steam Flashing?
How to Calculate Steam Consumption During Plant Start Up
Effective Steam Distribution System
What is Water Hammer?
Basic Wind Energy
Wind Turbine | Working Types and History of Wind Turbine
Theory of Wind Turbine
Engineering Thermodynamics Part 1
Fundamentals of ThermodynamicsThe word thermodynamics is derived from the Greek word theme (means heat) and dynamics (means force). Engineering professionals are interested in studying systems and their interaction with the surroundings. Concepts/Definitions used in this section are helpful for readers in understanding the concept of engineering thermodynamics which is also called Heat-Power Engineering.
System, Surrounding and UniverseSystem is something which we want to study and interested in, thus the first step is to fix precisely the objective of system study. The objective system study can be improving the efficiency of the system or to reduce the losses etc. Example of System can be to analyse the refrigeration cycle in cold storage plant or to analyse the Rankine cycle in power plant. System is defined as a definite mass of pure substance bounded by a closed or flexible surface; similarly the composition of matter inside the system can be fixed or variable depending upon the cycle. System dimensions need not to be necessarily constant (like air in a compressor is compressed by a piston) it can be variable (like inflated balloon).
Matter which interacts with the system externally is called Surrounding and Universe is the outcome of system and surrounding. The element which separates the system from its surrounding is called boundary. Boundary of the system can be fixed or in motion. The interaction between the system and the surrounding takes place by crossing the boundary and thus plays a very important role in thermodynamics (heat and power engineering).
Type of SystemsThere are basic two types of system:
- Closed System or Control Mass: is associated with the definite quantity of matter. Unlike open system in closed system there is no mass flow of matter occurs across the boundary of the system. There is also a special type of closed system which does not interact and isolated itself from the surrounding is called an isolated system.
- Control Volume (Open System): Control volume is limited to a region of space through which mass and energy can flow and cross the boundary of the system. The boundary of a open system is called a controlled surface; this controlled surface can be actual or unreal. Examples of control volume are the equipments that involve flow of mass to cross the boundary of the system like flow of water through pumps, steam flow in turbines and air flow through air compressors.