Working Principle of Three Phase Induction Motor

An electrical motor is such an electromechanical device which converts electrical energy into a mechanical energy. In case of three phase AC operation, most widely used motor is Three phase induction motor as this type of motor does not require any starting device or we can say they are self starting induction motor.
For better understanding the principle of three phase induction motor, the basic constructional feature of this motor must be known to us. This Motor consists of two major parts:
Stator of three phase induction motor is made up of numbers of slots to construct a 3 phase winding circuit which is connected to 3 phase AC source. The three phase winding are arranged in such a manner in the slots that they produce a rotating magnetic field after 3Ph. AC supply is given to them.

Rotor of three phase induction motor consists of cylindrical laminated core with parallel slots that can carry conductors. Conductors are heavy copper or aluminum bars which fits in each slots & they are short circuited by the end rings. The slots are not exactly made parallel to the axis of the shaft but are slotted a little skewed because this arrangement reduces magnetic humming noise & can avoid stalling of motor.

Working of Three Phase Induction Motor

Production of Rotating Magnetic Field

The stator of the motor consists of overlapping winding offset by an electrical angle of 120°. When the primary winding or the stator is connected to a 3 phase AC source, it establishes a rotating magnetic field which rotates at the synchronous speed.
Secrets Behind the Rotation:
According to Faraday’s law an emf induced in any circuit is due to the rate of change of magnetic flux linkage through the circuit. As the rotor winding in an induction motor are either closed through an external resistance or directly shorted by end ring, and cut the stator rotating magnetic field, an emf is induced in the rotor copper bar and due to this emf a current flows through the rotor conductor.
Here the relative speed between the rotating flux and static rotor conductor is the cause of current generation; hence as per Lenz's law the rotor will rotate in the same direction to reduce the cause i.e. the relative velocity.

Thus from the working principle of three phase induction motor it may observed that the rotor speed should not reach the synchronous speed produced by the stator. If the speeds equals, there would be no such relative speed, so no emf induced in the rotor, and no current would be flowing, and therefore no torque would be generated. Consequently the rotor can not reach the synchronous speed. The difference between the stator (synchronous speed) and rotor speeds is called the slip. The rotation of the magnetic field in an induction motor has the advantage that no electrical connections need to be made to the rotor. Thus the three phase induction motor is:

  • Self-starting.
  • Less armature reaction and brush sparking because of the absence of commutators and brushes that may cause sparks.
  • Robust in construction.
  • Economical.
  • Easier to maintain.

Working Principle of Three Phase Induction Motor - Video

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