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Magnetic Field and Magnetic Circuit | Magnetic Materials
Magnetic MaterialAll the materials in this universe may be classified either magnetic or non-magnetic. Magnetic materials are those which are affected by magnetic field and non magnetic materials are those which are not affected or slightly affected by magnetic field. Maximum types of materials fall under category of non – magnetic material. Non-magnetic material can further be classified as diamagnetic and paramagnetic materials. Some of the non magnetic materials exhibit very slight magnetic effect but it is extremely difficult to detect. Practically, all these materials are referred as totally non-magnetic. On the other hand, all the materials which exhibit magnetic effect strongly are referred as magnetic materials or ferromagnetic materials.
The materials based on iron, cobalt and ferrites are normally ferromagnetic materials.
Magnetic FieldMagnetic fields can be created either by placing, a permanent magnet or by supplying current through a solenoid. Latter is electromagnet. A magnetic field is defined as the space surrounding a permanent magnet or electromagnet where the electric field is felt by other magnet or magnetic material.
Magnetic Flux or Magnetic Lines of ForceMagnetic field is also represented by lines of force as static electric field. These lines of force are referred as magnetic flux. When a unit magnetic pole is placed inside a magnetic field, it will experience both repulsive and attractive force, from similar and opposite poles of the magnet, respectively. The unit pole travels due to resultant of the repulsive and attractive force. The path through which the unit pole travels in the magnetic field is referred as magnetic lines of force. There are numbers of magnetic lines of force in a magnetic field, and these lines of force are collectively called magnetic flux. These flux lines have some specific properties that are described below.
Properties of Magnetic Flux or Magnetic Lines of Force
- They always form complete closed loops. Unlike lines of electric flux, which radiate from and terminate at the charged surfaces, lines of magnetic flux exist all the way through the magnet.
- They behave as if they are elastic. That is, when distorted they try to return to their natural shape and spacing.
- The lines of force of magnetic field are radiated from the north (N) pole to the south (S) pole.
- Flux lines do not cross or interact to each other.
Since, the flux lines are something like elastic bands, the lines linking two unlike magnetic poles always try to shorten themselves. This brings two magnets together. When two like magnetic poles are brought closer to each other, as the magnetic flux lines do not intersect each other, the magnetic flux lines of both magnetic fields are compressed. As these flux lines behave as elastic bands, they will try to expand to their normal shape. Hence, one magnetic pole will push away other magnetic poles.