Two Port Network

The electrical network has one pair terminals as input and another pair terminals as output, is referred as two port network.

The figure below shows a two port network.Two port network
A single phase transformer is an ideal example of two port network.
single phase TransformerWhen an electrical signal is applied across the input ports, there would be an electrical signal across output ports.

The relation between input and output signals of the network can be determined by transferring various network parameters, such as, impedance, admittance, voltage ratio and current ratio. Let us refer to the figure below,
input and output signalHere in the network,
The transfer voltage ratio function is,The transfer current ratio function is,The transfer impedance function is,The transfer admittance function is,

Parameters of Two Port Network

There are different parameters, needed to analyze a two port network. For examples, Z parameters, Y parameters, h parameters, g parameters, ABCD parameters etc.
Let us discuss one by one in brief for better understanding.

Z Parameters

Z parameters are also known as impedance parameters. When we use Z parameter for analyzing two part network, the voltages are represented as the function of currents. So,

The Z parameters are,

The voltages are represented as

Y Parameters

Y parameter is dual of Z parameter.

In the two part network represented by admittance, the current and voltage related by the following equations,

h Parameter

h parameters also known as hybrid parameters.

In hybrid parameter circuit, voltage gain, current gain, impedance and admittance are used to determines relation between current and voltage of two port network.

ABCD Parameter

These are also called transmission parameters. Here, voltage and current and of input part are expressed in term of output part.

In matrix form it can be written as,

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