# Theory of Transformer on Load and No Load Operation

on 24/2/2012 & Updated on 22/7/2018## Theory of Transformer

We have discussed about the theory of ideal transformer for better understanding of actual elementary**theory of transformer**. Now we will go through the practical aspects one by one of an electrical power transformer and try to draw

**vector diagram of transformer**in every step. As we said that, in an ideal transformer; there are no core losses in transformer i.e. loss free core of transformer. But in practical transformer, there are hysteresis and eddy current losses in transformer core.

## Theory of Transformer on No-Load

### Having No Winding Resistance and No Leakage Reactance

Let us consider one electrical transformer with only core losses, which means, it has only core losses but no copper loss and no leakage reactance of transformer. When an alternating source is applied in the primary, the source will supply the current for magnetizing the core of transformer. But this current is not the actual magnetizing current; it is a little bit greater than actual magnetizing current. Total current supplied from the source has two components, one is magnetizing current which is merely utilized for magnetizing the core, and another component of the source current is consumed for compensating the core losses in transformers. Because of this core loss component, the source current in**transformer on no-load**condition supplied from the source as source current is not exactly at 90° lags of the supply voltage, but it lags behind an angle θ is less than 90

^{o}. If total current supplied from source is I

_{o}, it will have one component in phase with supply voltage V

_{1}and this component of the current I

_{w}is core loss component. This component is taken in phase with the source voltage because it is associated with active or working losses in transformers. Other component of the source current is denoted as I

_{μ}. This component produces the alternating magnetic flux in the core, so it is watt-less; means it is reactive part of the transformer source current. Hence I

_{μ}will be in quadrature with V

_{1}and in phase with alternating flux Φ. Hence, total primary current in

**transformer on no-load**condition can be represented as Now you have seen how simple is to explain the

**theory of transformer**in no-load.

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## Theory of Transformer on Load

### Having No Winding Resistance and Leakage Reactance

Now we will examine the behavior of above said**transformer on load**, that means load is connected to the secondary terminals. Consider, a transformer having core loss but no copper loss and leakage reactance. Whenever a load is connected to the secondary winding, load current will start to flow through the load as well as secondary winding. This load current solely depends upon the characteristics of the load and also upon the secondary voltage of the transformer. This current is called secondary current or load current, here it is denoted as I

_{2}. As I

_{2}is flowing through the secondary, a self mmf in secondary winding will be produced. Here it is N

_{2}I

_{2}, where, N

_{2}is the number of turns of the secondary winding of transformer.

This mmf or magnetomotive force in the secondary winding produces flux φ_{2}. This φ_{2} will oppose the main magnetizing flux and momentarily weakens the main flux and tries to reduce primary self-induced emf E_{1}. If E_{1} falls below the primary source voltage V_{1}, there will be an extra current flowing from source to primary winding. This extra primary current I_{2}′ produces extra flux φ′ in the core which will neutralize the secondary counter flux φ_{2}. Hence the main magnetizing flux of core, Φ remains unchanged irrespective of load. So total current, this transformer draws from source can be divided into two components. First one is utilized for magnetizing the core and compensating the core loss, i.e., I_{o}. It is the no-load component of the primary current. The second one is utilized for compensating the counter flux of the secondary winding. It is known as load component of the primary current. Hence total no load primary current I_{1} of a electrical power transformer having no winding resistance and leakage reactance can be represented as follows
Where θ_{2} is the angle between Secondary Voltage and Secondary Current of the transformer.
Now we will proceed one further step toward a more practical aspect of a transformer.

### Theory of Transformer On Load, with Resistive Winding, but No Leakage Reactance

Now, consider the winding resistance of transformer but no leakage reactance. So far we have discussed about the transformer which has ideal windings, means winding with no resistance and leakage reactance, but now we will consider one transformer which has internal resistance in the winding but no leakage reactance. As the windings are resistive, there would be a voltage drop in the windings. We have proved earlier that, total primary current from the source on load is I_{1}. The voltage drop in the primary winding with resistance, R

_{1}is R

_{1}I

_{1}. Obviously, induced emf across primary winding E

_{1}, is not exactly equal to source voltage V

_{1}. E

_{1}is less than V

_{1}by voltage drop I

_{1}R

_{1}. Again in the case of secondary, the voltage induced across the secondary winding, E

_{2}does not totally appear across the load since it also drops by an amount I

_{2}R

_{2}, where R

_{2}is the secondary winding resistance and I

_{2}is secondary current or load current. Similarly, voltage equation of the secondary side of the transformer will be

### Theory of Transformer On Load, with Resistance as well as Leakage Reactance

Now we will consider the condition, when there is leakage reactance of transformer as well as winding resistance of transformer. Let leakage reactances of primary and secondary windings of the transformer are X_{1}and X

_{2}respectively. Hence total impedance of primary and secondary winding of transformer with resistance R

_{1}and R

_{2}respectively, can be represented as, We have already established the voltage equation of a

**transformer on load**, with only resistances in the windings, where voltage drops in the windings occur only due to resistive voltage drop. But when we consider leakage reactances of transformer windings, voltage drop occurs in the winding not only because of resistance, it is because of impedance of transformer windings. Hence, actual voltage equation of a transformer can easily be determined by just replacing resistances R

_{1}& R

_{2}in the previously established voltage equations by Z

_{1}and Z

_{2}. Therefore, the voltage equations are, Resistance drops are in the direction of current vector but, reactive drop will be perpendicular to the current vector as shown in the above

**vector diagram of transformer**.

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