Ohm's Law | Definition, Applications and Limitation of Ohm's LawPosted by N Hanumantha Rao on 24/3/2012 & Updated on 30/7/2018
Introduction of Ohm’s LawFollowing the invention of Electricity, One of the great German physicist Georg Simon Ohm invented a concept which later became a very useful tool in the analysis of the materials towards its behavior in the conduction of electric current. The concept is called as “Ohm's Law” and invented in the year 1827.
This invention of “Ohm's Law” led other scientists and physicists to venture into the various study and experiments on the behavior of many metals and other elements on its behavior in the conduction of the electric current, and their results started pouring many useful applications for the mankind to benefit and enhance their comforts of living.
Definition of Ohm’s LawOhm’s Law states that the electric current flowing through a conductor is directly proportional to the voltage and inversely proportional to its resistance. In a Nutshell, the relation between the Voltage drop, Current and the Resistance is as follows Where V is the Potential drop I is the Current and R is the resistance of the conductor.
Post Developments of Ohm’s LawMany scientists/physicists have dwelled in the analysis of various materials which are of conducting and semiconducting nature and found out various concepts and limitations on the Ohm’s Law.
The limitations of the Ohm’s Law was identified are mostly applicable in the area of its use in Alternating Current Circuits as well as on the Behaviour of the materials /Conductors under different temperature conditions.
To days modern developments on the new methods of measurement of current and in monitoring the behavior of the electric and electronic systems are the fruitful results of the Ohm’s Law and its applications in the control system network.
Wonderful Applications of Ohm’s LawThe Applications of Ohm’s law led towards the invention of Semi-conductors (Diodes) as well as Silicon Control Rectifiers (SCRs). Further, the Rectifier bridge and Inverter bridge has made the possibility of conversion of Alternating current to Direct current and also used for the Energy storage types of equipment (Batteries) and Un-Interrupt Power supplies (UPS).
The reliability of power and its use under emergency conditions due to the UPS and Battery banks have improved the Quality of Life of the humanity across the globe and all because of the Ohm’s law and its results applied for various applications.
The Digital Era/Evolution born after these inventions post the use of Ohm’s law concept being widely used for the network analysis. Various useful gadgets like Heaters and Light bulbs using Tungsten elements, Electric Shunts for Measurements, Semiconducting and Rectifier bridges and Power control devices Signalling systems using the semiconductor technology are made possible and available to Mankind in further decades (From 18th Century onwards).
The Application of Ohm’s law in AC circuits led to the concepts on the invention of the Impedance due to the nature of the characteristics of materials functioning as Capacitors and Inductors.
Rotating types of equipment for Power Generation, Transmission, and Distribution applications are the result of this wonderful concept of Ohms Law. A Big Salute to Mr. Georg Simon Ohm for his invention of OHM’s LAW.
Limitation of Ohm's LawThe limitations of Ohm's law are explained as follows:
- This law cannot be applied to unilateral networks. A unilateral network has unilateral elements like diode, transistors, etc., which do not have same voltage current relation for both directions of current.
- Ohm's law is also not applicable for non – linear elements. Non-linear elements are those which do not have current exactly proportional to the applied voltage, that means the resistance value of those elements changes for different values of voltage and current. Examples of non – linear elements are thyristor, electric arc, etc.
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