01․ Given network is having N nodes and B branches, then number of twigs are

Number of twigs is nothing but the number branches of a tree. Those are equals to N - 1.

02․ Given network is having N nodes and b branches, then number of individual loops are

Number of individual loops is nothing but number of links of co-tree. These are represented by (branches - nodes + 1).

03․ If N is the number of nodes and b is the number of branches in a network, then rank of cut set matrix is

Rank of cutset matrix = twigs of tree = N - 1.

04․ If N is the number of nodes and b is the number of branches in a network, then rank of tie set matrix is

Rank of tie set matrix = Number of links = b - N + 1.

05․ Basic cut set matrix consists of

Basic cut set consists of only one branch. If two or more branches are present , then it is no more called as basic cut set but it can be called as cutset only.

06․ Active filter consists of

In active filter inductor element is absent. Only capacitor and op-amp are used in active filters.

07․ Mesh analysis is prefered when loops are------nodes

Mesh analysis is based on loops. So when loops are less in number than nodes then it is simple to find the loop current than node voltages.

08․ Reciprocity condition for h parameters is

A two port network will be reciprocal if ratio of transform to excitation will not interchange due to interchange their position. The Reciprocity condition for h parameters is h

. Symmetrical condition for h parameters is h

_{12}= - h_{21}. Symmetrical condition for h parameters is h

_{11}h_{22}- h_{21}h_{12}= 0.09․ A pole of driving point impedance is

Driving point impedance Z = V/I. Poles are located on denominators of the function. At zero current for a finite value of a driving point voltage we found the pole.

10․ According to duality principle a series inductor (L) can be represented as

According to duality, as they will show same characteristics for voltage or current.
Series L can be represent as parallel C.
Series C can be represent as parallel L.

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