01․ A computer has a word length of 8 bits (including sign). It is required to determine the range of integers that can be stored in the computer. If 1’s complement is used to represent the numbers, then the range will be

Since 1,s complement representation has a “negative zero” (11111111) in addition to zero (00000000), the values can be represented as (-2

^{7}-1) to 2^{7}-1 i.e. -127 to 12702․ While using a frequency counter for measuring frequency, two modes of measurement are possible.
1. Period time
2. Frequency mode
There is a ‘cross-over frequency’ below which the period mode is preferred. Assuming the crystal oscillator frequency to be 4Mhz the crossover frequency is given by

As we know crossover frequency is the half of oscillator frequency.
i.e. fcross - over = fcrystal/2 = 2Mhz

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