Acidity Test of Transformer Insulating Oil
Discharging a Capacitor
Charging a CapacitorClosely Related Articles
Active & Passive Elements
Maximum Power Transfer Theorem
Star - Delta Transformation
Nature of Electricity
Current and Voltage Division Rule
Working of Capacitor
Transient Behavior of Capacitor
Capacitors in Series and Parallel
Testing of Capacitors
Properties of Conductor
Magnetic Field and Magnetic Circuit | Magnetic Materials
Energy Stored in a Magnetic Field
Static Electric Field | Electrostatic Induction
A Current Carrying Conductor Within A Magnetic Field
Hard Magnetic Materials
Soft Magnetic Materials
Magnetic Circuit with Air Gap
Lines of Force
What is Flux
Capacitor and Capacitance
Energy Stored in Capacitor
Charging a Capacitor
Discharging a Capacitor
Fourier Series and Fourier Transform
Trigonometric Fourier Series
Analysis of Exponential Fourier Series
Electric Circuit and Electrical Circuit Elements
Series Parallel Battery Cells
RL Series Circuit
What is Inductor and Inductance | Theory of Inductor
Three Phase Circuit | Star and Delta System
RL Parallel Circuit
RL Circuit Transfer Function Time Constant RL Circuit as Filter
Construction of AC Circuits and Working of AC Circuits
Series RLC Circuit
Parallel RLC Circuit
Resistances in Series and Resistances in Parallel
Resonance in Series RLC Circuit
Planar and Non Planar Graphs of Circuit
SI System of Units
Electrical International Symbol
Electric Power Single and Three Phase Power Active Reactive Apparent
Vector Algebra | Vector Diagram
Relationship of Line and Phase Voltages and Currents in a Star Connected System
Vector Diagram | Three Phase Vector Diagram
Carbon Composition Resistor
Wire Wound Resistor
Light Dependent Resistor
Source of Electrical Energy
Ideal Dependent Independent Voltage Current Source
Voltage in Series
Voltage in Parallel
Voltage Drop Calculation
Voltage Regulator 7805
Voltage to Current Converter
Electrical DC Series and Parallel Circuit
Electrical DC Circuit
Definition of Electrical CircuitAn electrical circuit is a combination of two or more electrical components which are interconnected by conducting paths. The components may be active or inactive or both. This is a very basic definition of electrical circuit.
DC CircuitThere are two types of electricity - direct current and alternating current, i.e, DC and AC. The circuit that deals with direct current or DC, is referred as DC circuit and the circuit that deals with alternating current or AC, is generally referred as AC Circuit. The components of the electrical DC circuit are mainly resistive, where as components of the AC circuit may be reactive as well as resistive.
Any electrical circuit can be categorized into three different groups - series, parallel and series parallel. So for example, in the case of DC, the circuits can also be divided into three groups, such as series DC circuit, parallel DC circuit and series and parallel circuit.
Series DC CircuitWhen all the resistive components of a DC circuit are connected end to end to form a single path for flowing current, then the circuit is referred as series DC circuit. The manner of connecting components end to end is known as series connection. Suppose we have n number of resistors R1, R2, R3............ Rn and they are connected in end to end manner, means they are series connected. If this series combination is connected across a voltage source, the current starts flowing through that single path. As the resistors are connected in end to end manner, the current first enters in to R1, then this same current comes in R2, then R3 and at last it reaches Rn from which the current enters into the negative terminals of the voltage source. In this way, the same current circulates through every resistor connected in series. Hence, it can be concluded that in a series DC circuit, the same current flows through all parts of the electrical circuit.
Again according to Ohm’s law, the voltage drop across a resistor is the product of its electrical resistance and the current flow through it. Here, current through every resistor is the same, hence the voltage drop across each resistor's proportional to its electrical resistance value. If the resistances of the resistors are not equal then the voltage drop across them would also not be equal. Thus, every resistor has its individual voltage drop in a series DC circuit.
Electrical DC Series Circuit with Three ResistorsThe flow of current is shown here by a moving point. This is just a conceptual representation.
An Example of Series DC CircuitSuppose three resistors R1, R2 and R3 are connected in series across a voltage source of V (quantified as volts) as shown in the figure. Let current I (quantified as Ampere) flow through the series circuit. Now according to Ohm’s law, Voltage drop across resistor R1, V1 = IR1 Voltage drop across resistor R2, V2 = IR2 Voltage drop across resistor R3, V3 = IR3 Voltage drop across whole series DC circuit, V = Voltage drop across resistor R1 + voltage drop across resistor R2 + voltage drop across resistor R3 According to Ohm’s law, the electrical resistance of an electrical circuit is given by V ⁄ I and that is R. Therefore, So, effective resistance of the series DC circuit is . From the above expression it can be concluded, that when a number of resistors are connected in series, the equivalent resistance of the series combination is the arithmetic sum of their individual resistances. From the above discussion, the following points come out:
- When a number of electrical components are connected in series, the same current flows through all the components of the circuit.
- The applied voltage across a series circuit is equal to the sum total of voltage drops across each component.
- The voltage drop across individual components is directly proportional to its resistance value.
Parallel DC CircuitWhen two or more electrical components are connected in a way that one end of each component is connected to a common point and the other end is connected to another common point, then the electrical components are said to be connected in parallel, and such an electrical DC circuit is referred as a parallel DC circuit. In this circuit every component will have the same voltage drop across them, and it will be exactly equal to the voltage which occurs between the two common points where the components are connected. Also in a parallel DC circuit, the current has several parallel paths through these parallel connected components, so the circuit current will be divided into as many paths as the number of components. Here, in this electrical circuit, the voltage drop across each component is equal. Again as per Ohm’s law, voltage drop across any resistive component is equal to the product of its electrical resistance and current through it. As the voltage drop across every component connected in parallel is the same, the current through them is inversely proportional to its resistance value.
Electrical DC Parallel Circuit with Three ResistorsThe flow of current is shown here by a moving point. This is just a conceptual representation.
An Example of Parallel DC CircuitSuppose three resistors R1, R2 and R3 are connected in parallel across a voltage source of V (volt) as shown in the figure. Let I (Ampere) be the total circuit current which is divided into current I1, I2 and I3 flowing through R1, R2 and R3 respectively. Now according to Ohm’s law: Voltage drop across resistor R1, V = I1.R1 Voltage drop across resistor R2, V = I2.R2 Voltage drop across resistor R3, V = I3.R3 Voltage drop across whole parallel DC circuit, V = Voltage drop across resistor R1 = voltage drop across resistor R2 = voltage drop across resistor R3 ⇒ V = I1.R1 = I2.R2 = I3.R3 Thus when a number of resistors are connected in parallel, the reciprocal of the equivalent resistance is given by the arithmetic sum of the reciprocals of their individual resistances. From the above discussion of parallel DC circuit, we can come to the following conclusion:
- Voltage drops are the same across all the components connected in parallel.
- Current through individual components connected in parallel, is inversely proportional to their resistances.
- Total circuit current is the arithmetic sum of the currents passing through individual components connected in parallel.
- The reciprocal of equivalent resistance is equal to the sum of the reciprocals of the resistances of individual components connected in parallel.
Series and Parallel CircuitSo far we have discussed series DC circuit and parallel DC circuit separately, but in practice, the electrical circuit is generally a combination of both series circuits and parallel circuits. Such combined series and parallel circuits can be solved by proper application of Ohm’s law and the rules for series and parallel circuits to the various parts of the complex circuit.
Series and Parallel Circuit
Closely Related Articles Active and Passive Elements of Electrical CircuitOhm's Law | Equation Formula and Limitation of Ohm's LawKirchhoff Current Law and Kirchhoff Voltage LawSingle and Multi Mesh AnalysisSuperposition TheoremThevenin Theorem and Thevenin Equivalent Voltage and ResistanceNorton Theorem | Norton Equivalent Current and ResistanceReciprocity TheoremNodal Analysis in Electric CircuitsMaximum Power Transfer TheoremDelta - Star transformation | Star - Delta TransformationMore Related Articles Electric Current and Theory of Electricity | Heating and Magnetic EffectNature of ElectricityDrift Velocity Drift Current and Electron MobilityElectric Current and Voltage Division RuleRMS or Root Mean Square Value of AC SignalWorking Principle of a CapacitorQuality Factor of Inductor and CapacitorTransient Behavior of CapacitorCylindrical CapacitorSpherical CapacitorCapacitors in Series and ParallelHow to Test Capacitors?Electrical Conductance Conductivity of Metal Semiconductor and Insulator | Band TheoryWhat is Electrical Resistance?Resistivity and Laws of ResistanceProperties of Electric ConductorTemperature Coefficient of ResistanceResistance Variation with TemperatureSeries ResistanceMagnetic FieldMagnetic FluxMagnetic PermeabilityHysteresis LoopMagnetic Field and Magnetic Circuit | Magnetic MaterialsMagnetic SaturationEnergy Stored in a Magnetic FieldStatic Electric Field | Electrostatic Induction A Current Carrying Conductor Within A Magnetic FieldMagnetic SusceptibilityHard Magnetic MaterialsSoft Magnetic MaterialsMagnetic Circuit with Air GapElectric ChargeCoulombs Law | Explanation Statement Formulas Principle Limitation of Coulomb’s LawElectric Lines of ForceWhat is Electric Field?Electric Field Strength or Electric Field IntensityWhat is Flux? Types of Flux?Electric FluxElectric PotentialCapacitor and Capacitance | Types of CapacitorsEnergy Stored in CapacitorCharging a CapacitorDischarging a CapacitorFourier Series and Fourier TransformTrigonometric Fourier SeriesAnalysis of Exponential Fourier SeriesParity GeneratorElectric Circuit and Electrical Circuit ElementsSeries Parallel Battery CellsRL Series CircuitWhat is Inductor and Inductance | Theory of InductorRLC CircuitThree Phase Circuit | Star and Delta SystemRL Parallel CircuitRL Circuit Transfer Function Time Constant RL Circuit as FilterConstruction of AC Circuits and Working of AC CircuitsSeries RLC CircuitParallel RLC CircuitResistances in Series and Resistances in ParallelResonance in Series RLC CircuitPlanar and Non Planar Graphs of CircuitClipping CircuitMutual InductanceSelf InductanceSI System of UnitsElectrical International SymbolElectric Power Single and Three Phase Power Active Reactive ApparentVector Algebra | Vector DiagramRelationship of Line and Phase Voltages and Currents in a Star Connected SystemVector Diagram | Three Phase Vector DiagramTypes of Resistor Carbon Composition and Wire Wound ResistorVaristor Metal Oxide Varistor is Nonlinear ResistorCarbon Composition ResistorWire Wound ResistorVariable Resistors | Defination, Uses and Types of Variable ResistorsLight Dependent Resistor | LDR and Working Principle of LDRSource of Electrical EnergyVoltage SourceIdeal Dependent Independent Voltage Current SourceVoltage or Electric Potential DifferenceVoltage in SeriesVoltage in ParallelVoltage Drop CalculationVoltage DividerVoltage MultiplierVoltage DoublerVoltage RegulatorVoltage FollowerVoltage Regulator 7805Voltage to Current ConverterNew Articles Acidity Test of Transformer Insulating OilMagnetic FluxRing CounterDischarging a CapacitorCharging a Capacitor