## Trigonometric Fourier Series

We have already discussed the Fourier series in exponential form. In this article we will discuss another form of Fourier series i.e. Trigonometric Fourier series. Fourier series representation in Trigonometric form Fourier series in trigonometric form can be easily derived from its exponential form. The complex exponential Fourier series representation of a periodic signal x(t) … Read more

## Field Oriented Control

AC Induction motors offer enviable operational characteristics such as robustness, reliability and ease of control. They are extensively used in various applications ranging from industrial motion control systems to home appliances. However, the use of induction motors at its highest efficiency is a challenging task because of their complex mathematical model and non-linear characteristic during … Read more

## Control Engineering | Historical Review and Types of Control Engineering

Control system engineering is the branch of engineering which deals with the principles of control theory to design a system which gives desired behavior in a controlled manner. Hence, this is interdisciplinary. Control system engineers analyze, design, and optimize complex systems which consist of highly integrated coordination of mechanical, electrical, chemical, metallurgical, electronic or pneumatic … Read more

## Network Synthesis | Hurwitz Polynomial | Positive Real Functions

Theory of Network Synthesis Network Functions Network synthesis theory involves the synthesis of networks made up of both active components (like resistors) and passive components (like inductors and capacitors). Let’s start with the basics: what is a network function? In the frequency domain, network functions are defined as the quotient obtained by dividing the phasor … Read more

## On Off Control Theory | Controller

Sometimes, the control element has only two positions either it is fully closed or fully open. This control element does not operate at any intermediate position, i.e. partly open or partly closed position. The control system made for controlling such elements is known as on off control theory. In this control system, when process variable … Read more

## Mathematical Modelling of Control System | Mechanical Electrical

Mathematical Modelling of Control System There are various types of physical systems, namely we have: Mechanical systems Electrical systems Electronic systems Thermal systems Hydraulic systems Chemical systems First off we need to understand – why do we need to model these systems in the first place? Mathematical modeling of a control system is the process … Read more

## Control System | Closed Loop Open Loop Control System

When a number of elements are combined together to form a system to produce desired output then the system is referred to as control system. As this system controls the output, it is so referred. Each element connected to the system has its own effect on the output. Definition of Control System A control system … Read more

## Bode Plot Gain Margin and Phase Margin

Bode plots were first introduced by H.W. Bode, when he was working at Bell labs in the United States. Now before I describe what are this plots it is very essential here to discuss a few advantages over other stability criteria. Some of the advantages of this plot are written below: Advantages of Bode Plot … Read more

## Types of Control Systems | Linear and Non Linear Control System

Before I introduce you the theory of control system it is very essential to know the various types of control systems. Now there are various types of systems, we are going to discuss only those types of systems that will help us to understand the theory of control system and detail description of these types … Read more

## Transient State and Steady State Response of Control System

When we study the analysis of the transient state and steady state response of control system it is very essential to know a few basic terms and these are described below. Standard Input Signals : These are also known as test input signals. The input signal is very complex in nature, it is complex because … Read more