Valence Electron and Electric Conductivity

It is well known to us that an atom consists of protons, neutrons, and electrons. The central mass of an atom is made up of protons and neutrons and electrons revolve in orbitals. The number and arrangement of protons, neutrons and electrons in an atom determine the physical, chemical and electrical properties of an element. … Read more

Optoisolator or Optocoupler Construction and Operating Principle of Optoisolator

An optoisolator or an optocoupler is a device that transfers electrical signals between two electrically isolated circuits through light energy. Opto-isolators prevent the high voltages in one part of the circuit from affecting or destroying other parts of the system. Basic Construction of Optoisolator Opto-isolator is a device, which has two diodes: One is a … Read more

Integrated Circuits | Types of IC

Normally bipolar junction transistors, diodes and field effect transistors are commonly used electronics component in electronic circuit. These components are interconnected along with required resistors and capacitors to form an electronic circuit. This type of circuit is known as discrete circuit as each of the components can be separated from the circuit as when required. … Read more

Photo Electrons

When light strikes a clean material’s surface, electrons are emitted from that surface under some specific conditions. This phenomenon is well known as the photoelectric effect. The electrons are called photo-electrons. When light strikes on the surface electrons of the material gain sufficient energy from light to overcome the work function of the material and … Read more

Mobility of Charge Carrier

This is a property of conductor, defined as the ratio of drift velocity to applied electric field in a conductor. Drift velocity of charge carriers in a conductor depend upon two factors, one is the intensity of applied electric field across the conductor and other is one property of the conductor called Mobility of Charge … Read more

Electrical Conductance Conductivity of Metal Semiconductor and Insulator | Band Theory

What is Conductance? When we apply same potential difference across different conductors, we will see different currents flow through them. Actually how much current will flow through a specific conductor for certain applied potential difference across it, depends upon a specific property of the conductor, called electrical conductance. This property determines how easily a current … Read more

MOS Capacitor | MOS Capacitance C V Curve

The acronym MOS stands for Metal oxide semiconductor. An MOS capacitor is made of a semiconductor body or substrate, an insulator and a metal electrode called a gate. Practically the metal is a heavily doped n+ poly-silicon layer which behaves as a metal layer. The dielectric material used between the capacitor plates is silicon dioxide … Read more

Schottky Effect

Points to understand which are related to Schottky effect are the following: In a solid material, there will be two or less than two electrons for each atom which are free to move from one atom to another based on band theory. Work Function: The bare minimum quantity of energy (produced due to thermal energy) … Read more