Apnoea Detectors

What is Apnoea? The stoppage of breathing is apnoea, which leads to arrest of heart circulation. Apnoea occurs due to head injury, drug overdose, etc. It occurs in premature babies during first weeks of life due to undeveloped nervous system. Apnoea has to be treated else, it will lead to problem in brain function. Therefore, … Read more

Pulse Rate Measurement

When heart muscles contract, ventricles eject blood and a pressure is transmitted along the circulatory system. When the pressure travels through vessels, it causes vessel displacement. The displacement is measurable at various points in circulatory system. This pulse is felt when fingertip is placed over the radial artery on the wrist or other location where … Read more


It provides artificial respiration. Artificial respiration is given to the patient because the cerebral cortex cannot survive without oxygen for more than 5 minutes. So proper external oxygen supply is given before heart muscle fails. Artificial respiration ventilates the alveoli with air. Inside intensive care unit, a patient often requires breathing assistance. Therefore, ventilators provide … Read more

Fiber Optic Blood Gas Analyzer

For in-vivo measurement and to analyze small blood gases a small compatible sensor is required. Sensor should have ability to be inserted in the blood flow of the artery. They are passed through arterial cannula and are placed in the same place for several days. Therefore, blood gas analyzers based on fiber optics are developed … Read more

Pulse Oximeter

The oximeter is a device that used to measure the oxygen content in our blood. A pulse oximeter is the most commonly used because it is non-invasive, simple, cheap, easy to use, lightweight, small, compact, very quick responses. Pulse oximeter indicates the oxygen content of blood by measuring oxygen saturation. The blood carries oxygen from … Read more

Mechanical Functioning of Heart

There are two main types of circulation in our body. When the circulatory path for blood flows via lungs, it is Pulmonary Circulation. Whereas, the path that supplies oxygen to the body cells is systemic circulation. Heart pumps blood to the entire body. The pumping of blood happens due to the contraction of heart muscles. … Read more

Fetal Heart Rate Measurement Using Doppler Ultrasound Technique

Fetus blood-flow detector uses Doppler shift principle for obstetric applications. It measures the fetus heart rate from the blood flow signals and displays them. For obstetric applications, frequency range of 2 to 2.5 MHz is employed. Whereas, to study the blood flow in artery and vein frequency of 5 to 10 MHz is utilized. Maximum … Read more

Fetal Heart Rate Monitoring Techniques

In the labor ward fetal heart rate, monitoring is done at an intermittent basis for every 15 minutes. Earlier it was done using Pinard stethoscope. However, fetal heartbeat during contractions was missed when using this method. So, latest technologies were implemented. Cardiotocograph During labor, fetus condition is understood from the fetal heart rate. Recording of … Read more

Neonatal Incubator

Incubators An infant incubator is used to maintain baby’s body temperature at 37oC. Recent days incubators are present in all pediatric hospitals, neonatal units and birth centers. Therefore, it is an apparatus, which provides a suitable environmental condition for newborn babies. It provides a closed and controlled environment for babies. It circulates heated air over … Read more

Types of Defibrillators

Two types of defibrillators are showing below. AC defibrillators DC defibrillators AC Defibrillators AC defibrillator is the oldest and simplest type. The construction of AC defibrillator is such that appropriate values are available for internal and external defibrillation. In AC defibrillation, a shock of 50 Hz a.c frequency is applied to the chest for a … Read more