Electronic Polarization

Let us consider a single atom of atomic number Z. Say, +e coulomb is the charge of each proton in the nucleus and -e coulomb is the charge of each electron surrounds the nucleus. All orbiting electrons in the atom form a spherical cloud of negative charge surrounds the positively charged nucleus. The charge of … Read more

Mechanism of Polarization

First of all we have to know the definition of polarization before entering into mechanism. Polarization is actually the alignment of the dipole moments of the fixed or induced dipole in the direction of the peripheral electric field. The mechanism of polarization deals with how a molecule or atom is reacting to a peripheral electric … Read more

Dielectric Materials

The word ‘Dielectric’ comes from the Greek prefix ‘di’ or ‘dia’ meaning ‘across’. That is, this material which is placed across the plates of a capacitor, just like a non-conducting bridge. Dielectric materials are basically plain and simple electrical insulators. By the peripheral application of electrical field, these electrical insulators get polarised. Now, let us … Read more

Ionic Polarization

Ionic Polarization Before understanding what ionic polarization let is us observe how a sodium chloride (NaCl) molecule is formed. Sodium chloride (NaCl) molecule is formed by ionic bond between sodium and chlorine atoms. The sodium atom gives up one electron to get eight electrons in its outer most orbits. In this way the sodium atom … Read more

Dielectric Material as an Electric Field Medium

Dielectric materials are materials having no free electrons to conduct. The main difference from insulators is that it can store energy. All the insulators in electrical circuits are dielectrics. The change of dielectric material with and without electric field is represented in figure 1. In the steady operating condition, the role of the dielectric material … Read more

Orientational Polarization

Before discussing Orientational polarization, let us examine the structural details of some molecules. Let us take an oxygen molecule. A single oxygen atom has only 6 electrons on its outermost cell. One oxygen atom creates the double covalent bond with another oxygen atom and creates an oxygen molecule. In an oxygen molecule, the distance between … Read more