Atomic Energy Levels

Atoms constitute the building blocks of all materials in existence. In these atoms, there is a central portion called nucleus (N in Figure 1) which consists of protons and neutrons, around which revolves the particles called electrons. Next, it is to be noted that all the electrons constituting the considered material do not revolve along … Read more

Bohrs Atomic Model

It is introduced by Danish Physicist Niels Bohr in the year of 1913. According to this model the atom consists of small nucleus at the center and electrons which rotates in circular orbits surrounding the nucleus – similar to solar system. But here, the force of attraction is provided by electrostatic forces rather than gravitational … Read more

Thomson Plum Pudding Model (1911)

Thomson’s Plum Pudding Model is given by the English Physicist Sir Joseph John J.J. Thomson. He discovered the electron (first subatomic particle) in the year of 1897. At the time of discovery, J.J. Thomson called this negatively charged particle as corpuscles. Thomson’s Plum Pudding Model is the first model to represent the atomic structure of … Read more

Rutherford Atomic Model

We all have seen plums in padding. Previously it was thought that electrons in an atom are distributed on positive charge just like plums in a pudding. In other words, it was thought that positive charge exists throughout the atom and negative electrons are unevenly distributed on it just like plums in the pudding. This … Read more

What is an Atom?

An atom is defined as the smallest particle of a substance that can exist by itself or be combined with other atoms to form a molecule. In the year 1808, famous English chemist, physicist, and meteorologist John Dalton published his theory of the atom. At that time, many unexplained chemical phenomena got quickly unlocked by … Read more

Electron Configuration of Atom

Electron configuration of an atom represents that how the electrons are distributed in its atom among the orbits (shells) and sub shells. The electron configuration of an atom is very important as it helps to predict the chemical, electrical and magnetic behavior of substance. Based on electron configuration of atom, we can predict that whether … Read more

Quantum Numbers

The quantum numbers are basically represents the address of an electrons in atom. These quantum numbers represent the location, energy level and spin of electron in atom. These quantum numbers are useful for representing the electron configuration. Quantum numbers are of four types – Principal quantum number (n) Orbital or Azimuthal quantum number (l) Magnetic … Read more

Fermi Dirac Distribution Function

Distribution functions are nothing but the probability density functions used to describe the probability with which a particular particle can occupy a particular energy level. When we speak of Fermi-Dirac distribution function, we are particularly interested in knowing the chance by which we can find a fermion in a particular energy state of an atom … Read more

Energy Bands in Crystals

As per Neil Bohr’s theory of atomic structure, all the atoms are found to have discrete energy levels around their central nucleus (more on this can be found in the article “Atomic Energy Levels”). Now consider the case wherein two or more such atoms are placed nearer to one another. In this case, the structure … Read more