## Moore’s Law – What is it?

Moore’s Law refers to the observation that the number of transistors in an integrated circuit (IC) doubles approximately every 2 years. It is often cited as an explanation for the exponential growth of technology, sometimes even being coined as the ‘law of exponential growth’. Gordon Moore co-founder of Intel discovered that since the invention of … Read more

## Mechanical Equivalent of Heat

There is a simple relation between mechanical work done on a system and heat generated in it. James Prescott Joule first experimentally found that the heat produced in a system is directly proportional to the mechanical work done on it. He also calculated the constant of proportionality through a unique experiment, which we will also … Read more

## Joule’s Law of Heating

When current flows through an electric circuit, the collision between the electrons and atoms of wire causes heat to be generated. How much heat is generated during current flowing through a wire and on what conditions and parameters do the heat generation depend? James Prescott Joule an English physicist, coined a formula which explains this … Read more

## Ohm’s Law | Statement, Applications and Limitation of Ohm’s Law

Ohm’s law deals with the relationship between current, voltage and ideal resistance. This relationship was introduced by German physicist George Simon Ohm. That is why the law is well known as Ohm’s law. Ohm’s law first appeared in the book written by Georg Simon Ohm (German) in 1827. Ideal Resistance Before going to actual topic … Read more

## Biot Savart Law

Two French physicists, Jean Baptiste Biot and Felix Savart derived the mathematical expression for magnetic flux density at a point due a nearby current carrying conductor, in 1820. Viewing the deflection of a magantic compass needle, two scientists concluded that any current element projects a magnetic field in the space. After, through observations and calculations … Read more

## Ampere’s Circuital Law

Ampere’s Circuital Law states the relationship between the current and the magnetic field created by it. This law says, the integral of magnetic field density (B) along an imaginary closed path is equal to the product of current enclosed by the path and permeability of the medium. James Clerk Maxwell had derived that. It alternatively … Read more

## Fleming’s Left Hand Rule and Fleming’s Right Hand Rule

Whenever a current carrying conductor comes under a magnetic field, there will be a force acting on the conductor. The direction of this force can be found using Fleming’s Left Hand Rule (also known as ‘Flemings left-hand rule for motors’). Similarly if a conductor is forcefully brought under a magnetic field, there will be an … Read more

## Faradays Laws of Electrolysis – First and Second Laws (Equations & Definition)

Faraday’s Laws of Electrolysis Before understanding Faraday’s laws of electrolysis, we must first understand the process of electrolysis of a metal sulfate. Whenever an electrolyte like metal sulfate is diluted in water, its molecules split into positive and negative ions. The positive ions (or metal ions) move to the electrodes connected with the negative terminal … Read more

## Wiedemann Franz Law

Wiedemann-Franz law is the law which relates the thermal conductivity (κ) and the electrical conductivity (σ) of a material which consists of somewhat freely moving electrons in it. Thermal Conductivity (κ): It is the degree (measure) of capacity of a material to conduct heat. Electrical Conductivity (σ): It is the degree (measure) of capacity of … Read more

## Gauss Theorem

We know that there is always a static electric field around a positive or negative electrical charge and in that static electric field there is a flow of energy tube or flux. Actually this flux is radiated/emanated from the electric charge. Now amount of this flow of flux depends upon the quantity of charge it … Read more