Network Analysis or Circuit Analysis

Network Analysis is a process by which we can calculate different electrical parameters of a circuit element connected in an electrical network. An electrical circuit or network can be complicated too and in a complicated network, we have to apply different methods to simplify the network for determining the electrical parameters. The circuit elements in … Read more

Impedance Parameters or Z Parameters

The input and output of a two port network can either be voltage or current. If the network is voltage driven, that can be represented as shown below. If the network is driven by current, that can be represented as shown below. From, both of the figures above, it is clear that, there are only … Read more

Active And Passive Components in Electronics

Active and passive components form the two main types of electronic circuit elements. An active component supplies energy to an electric circuit, and hence has the ability to electrically control the flow of charge. A passive component can only receive energy, which it can either dissipate or absorb. Types of Electronic Components Electronic elements that … Read more

Admittance Parameters or Y Parameters

In the case of impedance parameter or Z parameter we express voltage in the term of current by the following equations. Similarly, we can represent current in terms of voltage bt admittance parameters of a two port network. Then we will represent the current voltage relations as, This can also be represented in matrix form … Read more

Two Port Network

The electrical network has one pair terminals as input and another pair terminals as output, is referred as two port network. The figure below shows a two port network. A single phase transformer is an ideal example of two port network. When an electrical signal is applied across the input ports, there would be an … Read more

Thevenin Theorem and Thevenin Equivalent Voltage and Resistance

Thevenin Theorem Thevenin Theorem tells that an active circuit between two load terminals can be considered as an individual voltage source. The voltage of this source would be open circuit voltage across the terminals and the internal impedance of the source is the equivalent impedance of the circuit across the terminals. To understand Thevenin Theorem … Read more

Op Amp Circuit

Operational amplifier or Op Amp as they are generally called are linear DC amplifiers. An op amp is a three terminal device, one called the inverting terminal, one non-inverting terminal and the other is called the output terminal. Below, you can see a pin diagram of a typical Op amp. An ideal Op amp has … Read more

Applications of Op Amp

A linear amplifier like an op amp has many different applications. It has a high open loop gain, high input impedance and low output impedance. It has high common mode rejection ratio. Due to these favourable characteristics, it is used for different application. In this article, we are discussing some of the most prominent uses … Read more

Substitution Theorem

As name implies, the main concept of this theorem which is based upon substitution of one element by another equivalent element. Substitution theorem gives us some special insights in circuit behavior. This theorem is also used to prove several other theorems. Statement of Substitution Theorem Substitution theorem states that if an element in a network … Read more

Difference Amplifier or Op Amp Subtractor

A difference amplifier or op amp subtractor is a specially designed op amp based amplifier circuit, which amplifies the difference between two input signals and rejects any signals common to both inputs. Let us consider the above op amp circuit. Now, by applying Kirchhoff Current Law at node 1, we get, We have written this … Read more