Uninterruptible Power Supply | UPS
Fermi Dirac Distribution Function
Fault of Electric Cable
Energy Bands in Crystals
Gallium Arsenide Semiconductor
Atomic Energy Levels
Solar Energy Solar Electricity
Solar Energy System | History of Solar Energy
Types of Solar Power Station
Components of a Solar Electric Generating System
What is photovoltaic effect?
Staebler Wronski Effect
Working Principle of Photovoltaic Cell or Solar Cell
Characteristics of a Solar Cell and Parameters of a Solar Cell
Solar Cell Manufacturing Technology
What is a Solar PV Module?
What is Standalone Solar Electric System?
Steam Boiler | Working principle and Types of Boiler
Methods of Firing Steam Boiler
Fire Tube Boiler | Operation and Types of Fire Tube Boiler
Water Tube Boiler | Operation and Types of Water Tube Boiler
Steam Boiler Furnace Grate Firebox Combustion Chamber of Furnace
Feed Water and Steam Circuit of Boiler
Boiler Feed Water Treatment Demineralization Reverse Osmosis Plant Deaerator
Coal Combustion Theory
Fluidized Bed Combustion | Types and Advantages of Fluidized Bed Combustion
Steam Condenser of Turbine
Jet Condenser | Low Level High Level Ejector Jet Condenser
Surface Steam Condenser
Economics of Power Generation
Cooling Tower Useful Terms and Cooling Tower Performance
Cooling Tower Material and Main Components
Power Plant Fire Protection System
Hydrant System for Power Plant Fire Protection
Medium Velocity Water Spray or MVWS System for Fire Protection
Foam Fire Protection System
Fire Detection and Alarm System
Gas Extinguishing System
Electric Power Generation
Power Plants and Types of Power Plant
Thermal Power Generation Plant or Thermal Power Station
Hydro Power Plant | Construction Working and History of Hydro power plant
Nuclear Power Station or Nuclear Power Plant
Diesel Power Station
Why Supply Frequency is 50 Hz or 60 Hz?
Economiser in Thermal Power Plant | Economiser
MHD Generation or Magneto Hydro Dynamic Power Generation
Cogeneration | Combined Heat and Power
Thermoelectric Power Generators or Seebeck Power Generation
Cost of Electrical Energy
Gas Turbine Power Plant
Steam Dryness Fraction
Superheated Steam and Steam Phase Diagram
Vapour Properties Mollier Chart Heat Capacities
What is Steam Flashing?
How to Calculate Steam Consumption During Plant Start Up
Effective Steam Distribution System
What is Water Hammer?
Engineering Thermodynamics Part 1
Science of Engineering Thermodynamics Part 2
Basic Law of Conservation and First Law of Thermodynamics
Carnot Cycle and Reversed Carnot Cycle
Enthalpy Entropy and Second Law of Thermodynamics
Rankine Cycle and Regenerative Feed Heating
Rankine Cycle for Closed Feed Water Heaters and Rankine Cycle Cogeneration
Ideal Verses Actual Rankine Cycle
Rankine Cycle Efficiency Improvement Techniques
Basic Wind Energy
Wind Turbine | Working Types and History of Wind Turbine
Theory of Wind Turbine
Types of Solar Power Station
- Stand Alone or Off Grid type Solar Power Plant
- Grid Tie type Solar Power Plant
- Grid Tie with Power Backup or Grid Interactive type Solar Power Plant
- Grid Fallback type Solar Power Plant.
Stand Alone or Off Grid Solar Power StationThis is most commonly used photo-voltaic installation used to provide localized electricity in absence of conventional source of electric power at certain location. As the name prefers this system does not keep any direct or indirect connection with any grid type network.
In standalone system the solar modules produce electric energy which is utilized to charge a storage battery and this battery delivers electricity to the connected load. Standalone systems are normally small system with less than 1 kilo watt generation capacity.
Grid Tie Solar Power StationIn some countries facility is available of selling power to the local or national grid. This is gaining popularity in Europe and the United States. This system facilitates both electric utility companies as well as the consumers. Here consumers can generate electricity by their own plant and can sell the surplus to the electricity utility company through grid connected to their plant. As the consumers sell the power they can earn money as return of their investment for installation of captive power plant on the other hand electric utility companies can reduce their capital investment on their own plant for power generation. In a grid-tie solar system, consumers consume electricity produced by solar captive power plant during sunny day time and also export surplus energy to grid but at night while solar plant does not produce energy, they import electric energy from grid for consumption. The main disadvantage of this system is that if there is a power cut in the grid, the solar modules should be disconnected from the grid. This system is not always very profitable especially where overall maximum demand of the system does not occur at the peak sunny period of the day. In hot climate where the power demand for air conditioning machines becomes maximum during peak sunny period of the day, this grid tie solar power generation system works most efficiently.
Grid tie solar systems are of two types one with single macro central inverter and other with multiple micro inverters. In the former type of solar system, the solar panels as well as grid supply are connected to a common central inverter called grid tie inverter as shown below. The inverter here converts the DC of the solar panel to grid level AC and then feeds to the grid as well as the consumer’s distribution panel depending upon the instant demand of the systems. Here grid-tie inverter also monitors the power being supplied from the grid. If it finds any power cut in the grid, it actuates switching system of the solar system to disconnect it from the grid to ensure no solar electricity can be fed back to the grid during power cut. There is on energy meter connected in the main grid supply line to record the energy export to the grid and energy import from the grid. As we already told there is another type of grid-tie system where multiple micro-inverters are used. Here one micro inverter is connected for each individual solar module. The basic block diagram of this system is very similar to previous one except the micro inverters are connected together to produce desired high AC voltage. In previous case the low direct voltage of solar panels is first converted to alternating voltage then it is transformed to high alternating voltage by transformation action in the inverter itself but in this case the individual alternating output voltage of micro inverters are added together to produce high alternating voltage.