Fault of Electric Cable
Energy Bands in Crystals
Gallium Arsenide Semiconductor
Atomic Energy Levels
Electric Pressure Cooker
Steam Dryness Fraction
Superheated Steam and Steam Phase Diagram
Vapour Properties Mollier Chart Heat Capacities
What is Steam Flashing?
How to Calculate Steam Consumption During Plant Start Up
Effective Steam Distribution System
What is Water Hammer?
Steam Boiler | Working principle and Types of Boiler
Methods of Firing Steam Boiler
Fire Tube Boiler | Operation and Types of Fire Tube Boiler
Water Tube Boiler | Operation and Types of Water Tube Boiler
Steam Boiler Furnace Grate Firebox Combustion Chamber of Furnace
Feed Water and Steam Circuit of Boiler
Boiler Feed Water Treatment Demineralization Reverse Osmosis Plant Deaerator
Coal Combustion Theory
Fluidized Bed Combustion | Types and Advantages of Fluidized Bed Combustion
Steam Condenser of Turbine
Jet Condenser | Low Level High Level Ejector Jet Condenser
Surface Steam Condenser
Economics of Power Generation
Cooling Tower Useful Terms and Cooling Tower Performance
Cooling Tower Material and Main Components
Power Plant Fire Protection System
Hydrant System for Power Plant Fire Protection
Medium Velocity Water Spray or MVWS System for Fire Protection
Foam Fire Protection System
Fire Detection and Alarm System
Gas Extinguishing System
Electric Power Generation
Power Plants and Types of Power Plant
Thermal Power Generation Plant or Thermal Power Station
Hydro Power Plant | Construction Working and History of Hydro power plant
Nuclear Power Station or Nuclear Power Plant
Diesel Power Station
Why Supply Frequency is 50 Hz or 60 Hz?
Economiser in Thermal Power Plant | Economiser
MHD Generation or Magneto Hydro Dynamic Power Generation
Cogeneration | Combined Heat and Power
Thermoelectric Power Generators or Seebeck Power Generation
Cost of Electrical Energy
Gas Turbine Power Plant
Solar Energy Solar Electricity
Solar Energy System | History of Solar Energy
Types of Solar Power Station
Components of a Solar Electric Generating System
What is photovoltaic effect?
Staebler Wronski Effect
Working Principle of Photovoltaic Cell or Solar Cell
Characteristics of a Solar Cell and Parameters of a Solar Cell
Solar Cell Manufacturing Technology
What is a Solar PV Module?
What is Standalone Solar Electric System?
Engineering Thermodynamics Part 1
Science of Engineering Thermodynamics Part 2
Basic Law of Conservation and First Law of Thermodynamics
Carnot Cycle and Reversed Carnot Cycle
Enthalpy Entropy and Second Law of Thermodynamics
Rankine Cycle and Regenerative Feed Heating
Rankine Cycle for Closed Feed Water Heaters and Rankine Cycle Cogeneration
Ideal Verses Actual Rankine Cycle
Rankine Cycle Efficiency Improvement Techniques
Basic Wind Energy
Wind Turbine | Working Types and History of Wind Turbine
Theory of Wind Turbine
Superheated Steam and Steam Phase Diagram
Superheated SteamWhen saturated steam generated in steam boiler is further passed through a heat transfer surfaces, then its temperature will starts increasing above evaporation or saturation. Steam is described as super heated, if its temperature is more than that of its saturation temperature. Degree of super-heat is directly related with the temperature of the steam heated above the saturation temperature. Super heat can only be provided to saturated steam and not to steam with presence of moisture content. For achieving a super heat, saturated steam has to pass through another heat ex-changer. This heat ex-changer for super-heating is called a secondary heat ex-changer within the boiler. Hot flue gas coming out from the boiler is considered to be a best way of heating the saturated steam.
Superheated steam finds its application in steam power plants for the generation of electrical power. In steam turbines, superheated steam enters at one end and exit from the other end into the condenser (may be of water or air cooled type). The differential of the Super-heated steam energy between the turbine inlet and outlet causes the turbine rotor to turn. There is a gradual reduction of the steam energy while it passing through the turbine rotor. So it is essential to have a sufficient super-heat at the turbine inlet, so as to avoid the condensation of wet steam at the later part of the turbine rotor. Basically steam turbine rotor has got number of stages and the steam has to pass through each stage before reaching the condenser. So if the enough super-heat is not provided in the steam at the turbine inlet, then the steam may get saturated while reaching the later stages of the rotor and subsequently get wetter while passing through the each successive stage.
Wet steam at the tail end of the rotor is very dangerous as it may lead to Water Hammer and severe erosion at the last stages of the turbine blades. In order to over-come this problem it is advisable to design the inlet steam parameters of steam turbine inlet in such way that super heated steam allow to enter at the turbine inlet and the turbine exhaust are designed to match the steam parameters close to saturated conditions. One of the major reasons for using the Super heated steam in steam turbine is appreciable improvement in the thermal efficiency of the cycle. Heat engine efficiency can be found by using either: Carnot Cycle efficiency: Ratio of temperature difference between inlet and outlet to inlet temperature. Rankine cycle efficiency: Ratio of heat energy at the turbine inlet & outlet to the total heat energy taken from the steam. 2. Example of calculating the Carnot Cycle and Rankine Cycle Efficiency Explained by Example: A Turbine is supplied with superheated steam at 96 bar at 490 Deg C. The exhaust is at 0.09 bar and at 12 % wetness. Temperature of saturated steam is : 43.7 Deg C Determine and Compare the Carnot Cycle and Rankine cycle. Procedure to determine the Carnot cycle efficiency : Turbine inlet temperature (T1) 490 + 273 = 763 Deg C Turbine Exhaust Temperature (T2) 43.7 + 273 = 316.7 Deg C Procedure to determine the Rankine cycle efficiency : Where, H1 in KJ/Kg Heat at turbine inlet at 96 bar and 490 Deg C = 3354.1 H2 in KJ/Kg Heat at turbine exhaust= Heat-in-steam + Heat-in-water = 0.88 x hfg + 0.12 x 183.3 = 0.88 x 2397.7 + 0.12 x 183.3 = 2131.97 Sensible heat in condensate corresponding to exhaust pressure of 0.09 bar in KJ/Kg = 183.3 3. Steam-Phase diagram is a graphical representation of data provided in the steam table. Steam-Phase diagram provides the relationship between enthalpy, temperature corresponding to various pressures. Liquid Enthalpy hf This is represented by line A-B on the phase-diagram. When the water starts receiving heat from 0o C, then it receives all its liquid entahlpy along the saturated water line A-B on the phase diagram Enthalpy of Saturated Steam (hfg ): Any further heat addition results in change in phase to saturated steam and is represented by (hfg ) on phase diagram i.e B - C Dryness Fraction (x): When heat is applied then the liquid start changing its phase from liquid to vapour and then the dryness fraction of the mixture starts increasing i.e moving towards unity. In the phase diagram dryness fraction of the mixture is 0.5 at exactly mid of the line BC. Similarly at point c on the phase diagram dryness fraction value is 1. Line C-D Point c is in the saturated vapour line, any further heat addition results in increasing the steam temperature i.e beginning of steam superheating represented by line C - D Liquid Zone Region towards left side of the saturated liquid line Super heat zone Region towards right side of the saturated vapour line Two phase Zone Area between the saturated liquid and saturated vapour line is mixture liquid and vapour. Mixture with varied dryness fractions. Critical Point It is the Apex point where saturated liquid and saturated vapour lines meet. Enthalpy of evaporation diminishes to zero at critical point, it means that water changes directly to steam at critical point and thereafter. Maximum temperature which liquid can attain or exist is equivalent to critical point. Critical point Parameters Temperature 374.15 Deg C Pressure 221.2 bar Values above this are super-critical values and are useful in increasing the efficiency of the rankine cycle.