Uninterruptible Power Supply | UPS
Fermi Dirac Distribution Function
Fault of Electric Cable
Energy Bands in Crystals
Gallium Arsenide Semiconductor
Atomic Energy Levels
Solar Energy Solar Electricity
Solar Energy System | History of Solar Energy
Types of Solar Power Station
Components of a Solar Electric Generating System
What is photovoltaic effect?
Staebler Wronski Effect
Working Principle of Photovoltaic Cell or Solar Cell
Characteristics of a Solar Cell and Parameters of a Solar Cell
Solar Cell Manufacturing Technology
What is a Solar PV Module?
What is Standalone Solar Electric System?
Steam Boiler | Working principle and Types of Boiler
Methods of Firing Steam Boiler
Fire Tube Boiler | Operation and Types of Fire Tube Boiler
Water Tube Boiler | Operation and Types of Water Tube Boiler
Steam Boiler Furnace Grate Firebox Combustion Chamber of Furnace
Feed Water and Steam Circuit of Boiler
Boiler Feed Water Treatment Demineralization Reverse Osmosis Plant Deaerator
Coal Combustion Theory
Fluidized Bed Combustion | Types and Advantages of Fluidized Bed Combustion
Steam Condenser of Turbine
Jet Condenser | Low Level High Level Ejector Jet Condenser
Surface Steam Condenser
Economics of Power Generation
Cooling Tower Useful Terms and Cooling Tower Performance
Cooling Tower Material and Main Components
Power Plant Fire Protection System
Hydrant System for Power Plant Fire Protection
Medium Velocity Water Spray or MVWS System for Fire Protection
Foam Fire Protection System
Fire Detection and Alarm System
Gas Extinguishing System
Electric Power Generation
Power Plants and Types of Power Plant
Thermal Power Generation Plant or Thermal Power Station
Hydro Power Plant | Construction Working and History of Hydro power plant
Nuclear Power Station or Nuclear Power Plant
Diesel Power Station
Why Supply Frequency is 50 Hz or 60 Hz?
Economiser in Thermal Power Plant | Economiser
MHD Generation or Magneto Hydro Dynamic Power Generation
Cogeneration | Combined Heat and Power
Thermoelectric Power Generators or Seebeck Power Generation
Cost of Electrical Energy
Gas Turbine Power Plant
Steam Dryness Fraction
Superheated Steam and Steam Phase Diagram
Vapour Properties Mollier Chart Heat Capacities
What is Steam Flashing?
How to Calculate Steam Consumption During Plant Start Up
Effective Steam Distribution System
What is Water Hammer?
Engineering Thermodynamics Part 1
Science of Engineering Thermodynamics Part 2
Basic Law of Conservation and First Law of Thermodynamics
Carnot Cycle and Reversed Carnot Cycle
Enthalpy Entropy and Second Law of Thermodynamics
Rankine Cycle and Regenerative Feed Heating
Rankine Cycle for Closed Feed Water Heaters and Rankine Cycle Cogeneration
Ideal Verses Actual Rankine Cycle
Rankine Cycle Efficiency Improvement Techniques
Basic Wind Energy
Wind Turbine | Working Types and History of Wind Turbine
Theory of Wind Turbine
The lamp is covered from all sides by transparent glass or fiberglass. This cover is transparent from all sides, hence solar lantern can emit light in all directions i.e. 360o of light illumination. The top of the transparent hollow cylindrical lamp cover, there is one top cover which is not transparent and generally made of some material by which casing of solar lantern is made. Hanger of the lantern is filled with the top cover. There is a plug point and charging discharging (ON) indications on casing. For changing purpose, wire with socket comes from solar module which placed under sunlight is plugged to the plug point on the casing. There are different models of solar lantern, but normally battery capacity of a solar lantern is 12 V 7 Ah. CFL lamp used in this system is normally either 5 W or 7 W. The PV module used for charging solar lantern is from 8 Watts peak to 14 Watts peak. A table showing different configuration of solar lantern as per MNRE specifications is given below
|Model||Lamp (CFL)||Battery||PV Module|
|I-A||5 W||12 V, 7 Ah at 20oC||8 to 99 Watts (Peak)|
|I-B||5 W||12 V, 7 Ah at 20oC||8 to 99 Watts (Peak)|
|II-A||7 W||12 V, 7 Ah at 20oC||8 to 99 Watts (Peak)|
|II-B||7 W||12 V, 7 Ah at 20oC||8 to 99 Watts (Peak)|
The Components of Solar Lantern
Solar Module or PV ModuleGenerally solar module used for charging a single solar lantern has rating of 8, 10 or 12 Watts (Wp). The module is normally kept on rooftop at most tilt angle for which the module gets maximum intensity of sunlight, for maximum duration. The lanterns are connected to module through wire socket which is kept in room or other places. But sometimes users do not install solar module at roof top instead they like to keep the module in sunlight in daily basis.
BatteryNormally maintenance free sealed dry type lead acid battery of tabular shaped with 12 V 7 Ah capacity is used for solar lantern.
InverterFor CFL lamp one inverter is required to make the battery output of AC. The inverter should have at least 80 % efficiency.
Protection and Indication SystemThe lantern has electronic circuit to provide cut off provision to prevent excess charging or over discharging of the battery. An electrical fuse is also provided with the system to protect it from any short circuit fault. Two Light Emitting Diodes ( LED ) are provided on the casing for charging and deep discharging states of the solar lantern.
LED Based Solar LanternSolar electricity is expensive. The availability of solar electricity in portable solar module is not large it is small. So, LED has become quite suitable light source in portable handy solar lantern. LED is best suited for small house hold solar lantern because of its small electricity consumption. Although LEDs are manufactured in different colours but white colour LED is most suitable for solar lantern.
As the electricity consumption sate of LEDs is quite low, the power ratings of the PV module used to charge the lantern is also low and if the peak power rating of a solar module is more than 2.5 W at 17 V it can be suitably used to charge a LED based solar lantern. Became of low power consumption, battery of this lantern is also smaller and lower rated. A 2.3 Ah 12 V at 20 oC sealed, maintenance free dry type lead acid battery can be suitably used for LED solar lantern. More than 30 lumens per Watt 5 mm white LED is most suitable for LED based solar lantern.