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Selection of Material for Engineering Application

The quality, performance, life etc. of an engineering product, all are effected by the engineering material being used for manufacturing that product. Hence it becomes necessary to select a suitable Engineering materials for a successful engineering product. For selection of suitable materials for any engineering application / product, following factors should be considered –
  1. Mechanical strength
  2. Stability
  3. Ductility
  4. Availability
  5. Fabricability
  6. Design
  7. Corrosion Resistance
  8. Cost

Mechanical Strength

Mechanical strength is primary criteria for selection of suitable materials for any Engineering application / product. Mechanical strength is the ability of materials to withstand with load or forces. Materials selected for any engineering application, should have appropriate mechanical strength to be capable to withstand with loads or forces developed in structure of engineering product during operation.

Stability

Stability of engineering material is defined by the ability of engineering product manufactured by using that material to with stand with following operating conditions-
  1. Temperature
  2. Fluctuations in temperature
  3. During of operation
  4. Radiation
  5. Atmospheric conditions

Ductility

Ductility of engineering material is the property of material makes the material suitable for fabrication by rolling, drawing, extrusion and other mechanical processes. Basically it is the ability of material that how much the materials can be stretched plastically without breakdown or failure. Ductility of materials is related to the strength of material. Considerable ductility can be obtained at a sacrifice of strength or vice versa. For example, by increase of temperature ductility of material increased and strength decreased. By cold rolling the mechanical strength is increased whereas the ductility is decreased. It is not necessary the material being used for all product should have high ductility. But it should have suitable ductility.

Availability

Material selected for engineering product should be easily available in desired form and at appropriate cost. So that the product can be produced economically to make its price competitive in market. Material may be available in any form such as casting, forging, rolled sheets etc. But the availability of material in suitable form is necessary to facilitate the manufacturing the product with desired quality.

Fabricability

Fabricability of an Engineering material is the ability of material, which indicates that how easily it can be fabricated in desired form and shape in order to manufacture an engineering product. Fabricability of material makes it suitable for mechanical processing to convert it in desired form and shape.

Design

The selection of material for any engineering product is also governed by the design of product. The design of engineering product decides the strength and ductility required for in materials being selected for that product. Hence, the engineering product should be designed with consideration of properties of engineering material.

Corrosion Resistance

When the Engineering product is used in an industrial atmospheric environment, there are chances that the base materials of product gets corroded. Corrosion of refined material is a natural process which converts the refined material in more stable oxides. This corrosion makes the material gradually weak with time. Hence, for the satisfactory operation, performance and life of engineering product, it becomes necessary that material being selected for that product should have sufficient corrosion resistance.

Cost

To make the engineering product commercially successful and profitable, its price should be reasonable and competitive in market. The price value of any engineering product is governed by many factor such as material cost, labour cost, processing cost etc. Hence, the keep the price of product low, it becomes necessary that the material cost, labour cost and processing cost should by as minimum as possible. Therefore, the cost of engineering material selected for engineering product must be low.

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